Migration of people is one of the main reasons for urbanisation, as people moved from rural areas to cities in search of jobs for better lifestyle and better living standards. Already half the global population live in cities, it is estimated that by 2050 two-thirds of the world’s people will live in Urban areas.
This only means there will be a fight for two of the most important issues, Poverty and Environment deterioration. With the growing population, there is a scarcity of resources like water, quality air, energy, health and quality of life. The water bodies, land, climate, vegetation, ground water level, water resources, soil are highly impacted. Considering the nature of urbanisation, it is important and critical to minimize the damages to the environment. Strong planning for cities will be essential in managing all these difficulties.
Water bodies are encroached for infrastructure developments like apartments, roads, parks, industries and factories. This development had led to a crunch of resources and basic amenities. Encroachment of lakes and drainage lines leads to floods when there is heavy rain. The effects of floods are loss of lives, damage of infrastructures including roads, canals, drainage lines and sewage systems.
Waste water outlets are let into lakes, thus contaminating the lakes and giving no chance for aquatic animals to survive and not suitable for daily use or consumption. This also leads to contamination of groundwater level. Contaminated lakes provide an environment for bacteria, parasites and pests to multiply drastically. Waterborne diseases like cholera, malaria, diarrhoea etc.. are caused because of consumption of contaminated water.
Wetland loses its fertility. When the soil does not have the capacity to absorb water and it does not allow water to seep through and reach ground water aquifers.
Lakes are one of the most valuable sources of freshwater in urban cities, they help the communities around to establish. To have a balance we must learn to coexist with nature, our actions must be measured considering both the environment and human habitat. These causes must be reversed and With better planning and sustainable ways to conserve water, sustainability can be maintained and reduces the impact on the environment.