Located within the largest mangroves in the world, the Sundarban Wetland is one of the largest wetland which covers an area of about 1,40,000 ha. The Indian Sundarban has an area
of about 9000 sq km. It lies in the delta formed by the River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghna on the Bay of Bengal. The Indian side of the wetland has also been recognized under the Ramsar Convention of wetlands of international importance since February 2019. Habitat of the Royal Bengal Tiger, it is located in a totally different bioclimatic zone. It is surrounded by the beautiful scenic nature and is also known internationally for its rich biodiversity of flora and fauna.
The wetland is considered as a biodiversity hotspot as it inhabits some of the rare and threatened species of the world like the Indian Python, estuarine Crocodile and Irrawaddy Dolphin. It is the only mangrove forest which is home to the
The Ramsar site also has around 260 species of birds and 40 species of plants including 34 of mangroves. More than 87 species of fish is also found including the critically endangered River Shark. It is a habitat to 8 of the 12 species of Kingfisher found in India. The vast variety of organisms found in this hotspot makes it an area to be protected and conserved fully.
Despite being designated as a protected wetland, it is facing some major threats. The foremost concern is the human interference as people live on the wetland’s periphery. They cultivate shrimp, fish, crabs and molluscs. Fishing has a high impact on the ecosystem of Sundarbans. Also the hunting and poaching of wild animals is another concern of the administration. The hotspot is also under the threat of climate change.
For the protection of this ecologically important spot, proper steps need to be taken from the government as well as the concerned authorities. Most importantly the local and native
people should be involved in the conservation process whose livelihood depends on this wetland. Regular checks should also be carried out to protect its beauty.