Study on Adjoining Point Of Haldi and Hoogly River

— by Bishruti C, August 23 2021 —


The adjoining point of Hoogly and Haldi river is one of the most significant place for the developing industrial township. The Hoogly river carries a lots of industrial wastes from industrial area of Kolkata and Howrah. Since Haldia is the fast growing city into a major industrial center of Eastern-India.

Major Industries :-

  • Haldia Petrochemicals;
  • Pteriphthalic acid project of Mitsubishi Chemical Corporation;
  • Haldia Dock Complex under Calcutta Port Trust;
  • Exide Industries Ltd. producing automotive batteries;
  • Consolidated Fibers and Chemicals Ltd. producing acrylic staple fiber;
  • Him Containers Ltd. producing marine containers;
  • Hindusthan Lever Ltd. producing industrial phosphate;
  • Indian Oil Corporation Ltd. having oil refinery complex;
  • Petroleum Coke Chemicals Ltd. producing petrocarbons
  •  Shaw Wallace & Co. producing organophosphate pesticides

General properties

Potassium (mg/l)67.128.87
Total Fixed Solids(TFS) (mg/l)10388118
Total Hardness as Caco3 (mg/l)3450150
Conductivity (µs/cm)15936.80265.20
Sodium (mg/l)2416.231131.40
Sulphate (mg/l)1021.2820.39
Total Alkalinity (mg/l)16066
Total Dissolved solids(TDS) (mg/l)12960206
Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN) (mg/l)
Nitrate-N (mg/l)4.761.19
Dissolved 02 (mg/l)9.64.6
Fecal Coliform (MPN/100ml)11000`790
Fecal Streptococci (MPN/100ml)200100
Magnesium (mg/l)697.4118
Phenolphthalein Alkanity (mg/l)224
Total Suspended solids (TSS) (mg/l)63286
Turbidity (NTU)93318.60
COD (mg/l)22.724.41
Temperature (˚c)3219
Total coliform (MPN/100ml)1600008000
Boron  (mg/l)BDLBDL
Calcium (mg/l)23230
Chloride (mg/l)9996.90942.27


SL. NoOrderFamily and scientific nameVernacular name/Local nameSeason of collection
1 Gobiosoma hildebrandlBalkiri machMonsoon
2 Glossogobius giurlsTank goby/balkiri machMonsoon
3 Periophthalmus modestusShuttles hopp fish/danphar machWinter
4 Scatophagu sargusSpotted scat/Vaja chauliMonsoon and Summer
5 Sillago sihamaSilver sillago/Sila machMonsoon and Winter
6 Terapon jarbuaTiger perch /Kunkuni machSummer and Winter
7 Eubleekeria splendensSplendid pony fish/Tekathi machWinter
8 Gobiomorus dormitoryGiant goby/Balkiri machMonsoon and Winter
9 Lates calcariferSilver grunt/Vetki machMonsoon and Winter
10 Pomadasys hastaSilver grunt/Khurunda machMonsoon and Winter
11 Corica sobornaGangas river sprat/Kagia machWinter
12 Anodontostoma chacundaChacunda gizzard shad/Khayera machWinter and Summer
13 Mugil cephalusParse machMonsoon and Winter
14 Arius spCat fishMonsoon and Winter
15 Mystus spTangraMonsoon and Winter
16 Rita gograNadi tangra 
 ScorpaeniformisPlatycephalidae Monsoon
17 Platycephalus indicus Monsoon
18 Xenetodon cancilaGar fishMonsoon and Winter

Diversity of Phytoplankton

Spirogyra sp,Volvox sp, Chlamydomonus sp, Anabaena sp, Nostoc sp, Stigeoclonium sp,

Uronema sp.

Diversity of Zooplankton

Filinialongiseta, Brachionu ssp, Keratella sp, Lepadella ,Trichocerea ,Notholca sp , B. angulsaris,Trichocerea sp ,Mysids shrimp ,Daphnia sp ,Bosmina sp ,Cyclops sp ,Acartia clausi,Labidocera wollastoni ,Eurytemora hirundoides, Nauplius stage ,Mesocyclops sp.

Effects of heavy metals on fish

SL. NoHeavy  metalsFish Tissues
  Gill (mg/kg)Muscle (mg/kg)
01Zinc (Zn)21.059.81
02Copper (Cu)3.510.92
03Cadmium (Cd)0.510.26
04Cromium (Cr)0.230.09
05Lead ((Pb)4.012.72
06Nickel (Ni)0.210.08

Heavy metals cause changes in the body of fish. Several kinds of disease are found in the fishes due to the pollution are given bellow.

Histological manifestations in gill and liver of A. gagora and P. pama from Haldia.

A) Clubbing of gill filaments in A. gagora.

B) Degeneration of secondary gill filament in A. gagora.

C) Gill filament showing epithelial lifting and hypertrophy in P. pama.

D) Fusion of secondary gill filament in A. gagora.

E) Liver showing cytoplasmic degeneration in A. gagora.

F) Evacuolation of hepatic ~ells in liver of P. pama.

Histological manifestations in kidney of A. gagora and P. pama from Haldia (H & E)

G) Necrotic hemapoietic tissue in liver of A. gagora.

H) An enlarged glomerulus and degenerating renal tubules in kidney of A. gagora.

I) Kidney showing congregated epithelial cells in renal tubules and picnotic nucleus of P. pama.

J) Kidney showing thickening in the walls of renal tubules and degenerating hemopoietic tissue in P. pama.

What should we stop?

  • Various industries discharges harmful chemicals consists of several harmful heavy metals.
  • We have to stop the careless mentality about the releasing of untreated industrial wastes into the river.
  • Hot water should be cooled before releasing.
  • Use of excessive fertilizer should be avoided.

What should we do?

Type of remediationDescription
AdsorptionIt is the process of solid holds molecules of liquid or solute as a thin film.
ChlorinationIt is the most widely used disinfectant for the treatment of waste water.
Ion exchangeIt is the process of demineralization.
Chemical extractionSeparation of various water solvent.
Membrane separationSeparation of various molecules through membrane, it depends on the pore size and molecular size.
Electrokinetics It is a procedure of a low-voltage direct-current electric field is applied across a section of contaminated soil to move contaminants.
BioleachingRemoves heavy metals.
PhytoremediationApplication of plants to remove wastes from water.



Ion exchange


  1. West Bengal water pollution control board
  2. Heavy metals in water of the rivers Hooghly and Haldi at Haldia and their impact on fish, Article  in  Journal of Environmental Biology · August 2005, Srikanta Samanta, Kadamvari Saha
  3. An assessment of heavy metals in sediments from two tributaries of lower stretch of Hugli estuary in West Bengal , Bhupander Kumar1, Sanjay Kumar1, Meenu Mishra1, Dev Prakash1, S. K. Singh1, C. S. Sharma1 and D. P. Mukherjee2
  4. Impact of Industrial Effluents on Aquatic Biota in the Mouth of Haldi River, West Bengal ,Authors: Maity, Riyanka, Mandal, Basudev Gupta, Ashis
  5. Wastewater technology fact sheet, Chlorination
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