Study on Adi-Ganga Canal

— by Bishruti C, August 27 2021 —

  • Study area
    • Name: Adi-Ganga Canal
    • Others Name: Gobindapur Creek, Surman’s Canal, Tolly’s Canal
    • Length: 75 Km
  • Introduction

Adi-Ganga canal, an important navigational canal is the main channel of Bhagirathi-Hoogli River flows through the center of south Kolkata. It was the main flow of the Hoogli River from 15th to 17th century but now at some places it is totally dried up.

  • Historical significance:

Nawab Alivardi Khan (1739 – 1756) hired Dutch engineers and excavated the canal. During 1775 -1777, a British service-man of East-India Company named Major William Tolly excavated this canal to engage import and export via Adi-Ganga.

  • Water Source: Bhagirathi-Hoogli river, rain water.
  • Location : Kolkata, West Bengal
  • General water quality
  • Chemical properties (in past five years)
  • Range of Biological Oxygen Demand

Highest: 43.54 mg/L, The lowest: 2.94 mg/L (In past five years)

  • Range of DO

Almost zero, Highest: 4 mg/L, Lowest: 0.5 mg/L

  • Fecal Coliform

Ranges between 10 lakhs to 70 lakhs

  • pH

Varies between 7 to 8.5

  • Water Temperature

Varies between 20° C to 35°C

  • Total Coliform

Ranges between 20 lakhs to 90 lakhs

  • Chemical oxygen demand

Highest: 208.00 m/L , Lowest: 6.00 mg/L

  • Total suspended solids
Lead0.01-0.02 ppm0.1 ppm
Nickel0.22-0.36 ppm
Zinc0.0046-0.0104 ppm5.0 pmm
Cadmium0.005-0.01 ppm0.01 ppm
chromium0.023-0.050 ppm0.05 ppm
ArsenicBDL0.01 ppm
  • Physical properties
  • Color: Blackish, Dark brown or Mod ash
  • Adour: septic, rotten eggs or fishy
  • Visible effluent discharge: Moderate to high with floating algae.

Present Scenario

  • Scientific solution

What should we stop?

  •  Adi-Ganga contains high coliforms, BOD & suspended solids.
  • So firstly, we should avoid releasing construction waste and the untreated sewage in to lakes.
  • Avoid throwing solid waste, plastic, things made up with metals.
  • Avoid harmful untreated chemicals, hot water and ass released from industries.

What we should do?

Artificial Aeration

Air flow into waterImproves water quality, easy to apply, sustainableCostly, maintenance requirs

Water Transfer

Clean water will be mixed with polluted waterPromote self purification systemCostly and labour intensive

Mechanical Algae Removal

Removal of algae by mechanical process/nettingImprove water qualityCostly during operation

Biological Treatment

The microbes eat up contaminates such as oil and organic matter. Letting off carbon dioxide and water.

Water Treatment by Using Floating Beds

  • Plant base floating bed
  • Ecological floating bed
  • Floating Wetland/artificial floating islands
  • Combine floating bed
  • Hydroponic floating bed
  • Hybrid floating bed
  • Multistage floating bed
  • Enhanced floating bed
  • Aqua mats
  • Endophyte floating bed
  • Stereo floating bed

Chemical Treatment

Flocculation, Precipitation, Oxidation, AlgaecidesQuick remediationTemporary, produce secondary waste

Remediation by Aquatic Animal

  • Gastropods: Bio indicator of heavy-metals
  • Silver carps, common carps, snail: reduce concentration of nutrients, eutrophication.
  • Conclusion

Adi-ganga carries all the drainage water and sewage of south Kolkata. Therefore sewage and waste treatment is required.

%d bloggers like this: