Study on Adi-Ganga Canal
— by Bishruti C, August 27 2021 —
- Study area
- Name: Adi-Ganga Canal
- Others Name: Gobindapur Creek, Surman’s Canal, Tolly’s Canal
- Length: 75 Km
Adi-Ganga canal, an important navigational canal is the main channel of Bhagirathi-Hoogli River flows through the center of south Kolkata. It was the main flow of the Hoogli River from 15th to 17th century but now at some places it is totally dried up.
- Historical significance:
Nawab Alivardi Khan (1739 – 1756) hired Dutch engineers and excavated the canal. During 1775 -1777, a British service-man of East-India Company named Major William Tolly excavated this canal to engage import and export via Adi-Ganga.
- Water Source: Bhagirathi-Hoogli river, rain water.
- Location : Kolkata, West Bengal
- General water quality
- Chemical properties (in past five years)
- Range of Biological Oxygen Demand
Highest: 43.54 mg/L, The lowest: 2.94 mg/L (In past five years)
- Range of DO
Almost zero, Highest: 4 mg/L, Lowest: 0.5 mg/L
- Fecal Coliform
Ranges between 10 lakhs to 70 lakhs
Varies between 7 to 8.5
- Water Temperature
Varies between 20° C to 35°C
- Total Coliform
Ranges between 20 lakhs to 90 lakhs
- Chemical oxygen demand
Highest: 208.00 m/L , Lowest: 6.00 mg/L
- Total suspended solids
|Lead||0.01-0.02 ppm||0.1 ppm|
|Zinc||0.0046-0.0104 ppm||5.0 pmm|
|Cadmium||0.005-0.01 ppm||0.01 ppm|
|chromium||0.023-0.050 ppm||0.05 ppm|
- Physical properties
- Color: Blackish, Dark brown or Mod ash
- Adour: septic, rotten eggs or fishy
- Visible effluent discharge: Moderate to high with floating algae.
- Scientific solution
What should we stop?
- Adi-Ganga contains high coliforms, BOD & suspended solids.
- So firstly, we should avoid releasing construction waste and the untreated sewage in to lakes.
- Avoid throwing solid waste, plastic, things made up with metals.
- Avoid harmful untreated chemicals, hot water and ass released from industries.
What we should do?
|Air flow into water||Improves water quality, easy to apply, sustainable||Costly, maintenance requirs|
|Clean water will be mixed with polluted water||Promote self purification system||Costly and labour intensive|
Mechanical Algae Removal
|Removal of algae by mechanical process/netting||Improve water quality||Costly during operation|
The microbes eat up contaminates such as oil and organic matter. Letting off carbon dioxide and water.
Water Treatment by Using Floating Beds
- Plant base floating bed
- Ecological floating bed
- Floating Wetland/artificial floating islands
- Combine floating bed
- Hydroponic floating bed
- Hybrid floating bed
- Multistage floating bed
- Enhanced floating bed
- Aqua mats
- Endophyte floating bed
- Stereo floating bed
|Flocculation, Precipitation, Oxidation, Algaecides||Quick remediation||Temporary, produce secondary waste|
Remediation by Aquatic Animal
- Gastropods: Bio indicator of heavy-metals
- Silver carps, common carps, snail: reduce concentration of nutrients, eutrophication.
Adi-ganga carries all the drainage water and sewage of south Kolkata. Therefore sewage and waste treatment is required.
- A comparative study of Microbial status and Dissolved Heavy Metals in River Ganga and Adi Ganga (Tolly’s Nullah), Kolkata, India, A.Bhattacharjee & Dr. S.Bose
- Remediation of Polluted River Water by Biological, Chemical, Ecological and Engineering Processes, Hossain Md Anawar 1,2 and Rezaul Chowdhury 3,*
- West Bengal pollution control; water quality parameters