Few Canals of Chennai

Deemed the water capital of India by many, Chennai is at crossroads. Significant urbanization and industrialization has taken place at the cost of rising pollution. The city’s tales of beautiful water bodies have become distant memories as sewage, effluents, and plastics choke their lungs and kill the beings within. It’s only a matter of time before the remaining few of them disappear.

1. Buckingham Canal

The Buckingham Canal – one of India’s largest canals sprawling over an area of 796 kilometers – struggles to live today. Though once a source of livelihood and the primary means of transportation for the people of Chennai, the canal is succumbing to a slow death with increased drainage of sewage and pollutants into it.

It was 1806 when Chennai was called Madras, and when the excavation of the first section of the canal between Madras and Ennore had been completed, leading to the present-day Basin Bridge Junction. This section was called the Cochrane’s Canal – named after its major financer, Basil Cochrane. Over time, Cochrane’s Canal was extended both northwards and southwards, section by section, and eventually came to be called the Buckingham Canal – named after the then Governor, the Duke of Buckingham and Chandos – around the time of the Great Famine of Madras.

The condition of the historic Buckingham Canal is miserable today. Plastic strewn all over the canal, sewage blackening the little water that remains, and a nauseating stench are unfortunately the things what characterize this historical wonder. It is however possible for the canal to witness a brighter future with increasing governmental measures to revamp the water channel.

2. Pappan Canal

The Pappan Canal, a lesser known canal of Chennai, lies dilapidated. It slithers across areas of MGR Nagar and Tambaram, and serves as a feeder channel to the Adyar River. Whilst earlier the canal’s banks were around 13 meters wide, they are less than 4 meters wide today. Urban settlements and encroachments are believed to be the principal reason behind this.

Shrinking banks have led to lesser drainage of water into the Adyar River, increasing the chances of flooding of several localities during heavy rains.

3. Mambalam Canal

Once a beautiful, well-known water channel brimming with life, the Mambalam Canal today remains forgotten and ignored amidst the hustle-bustle of a developing city. Originating near the Valluvar Kottam and draining into the Adyar River, this canal is struggling desperately to breathe. With waste and sewage being dumped into it, the canal is a mosquito-breeding site and a source of various diseases. However, the measures being undertaken by civic bodies to revamp the polluted canal creates chances for an optimistic tomorrow for it.

4. Korattur Eri Canal

Draining excess water from the Korattur Lake to the Retteri Lake, this canal too has been victimized by pollution. Sewage discharge by industries and dumping of wastes into the Korattur Lake has negatively impacted the surrounding verdure, as well as the organisms that live within. And the parallel consequence of this has been the contamination of the narrow north-bound canal. With EFI’s restoration efforts, the Korattur Eri Canal has received a significant impetus for reverting to what it once used to be.

5. Okkiyam Maduvu

A crucial flood-prevention system that drains excess water from the Pallikaranai wetland into the Buckingham Canal, the Okkiyam Maduvu Canal is a lesser-known channel that gurgles in the southern suburbs of Chennai. This canal is even called the “aorta” of the Pallikaranai marshland because of its ecological significance as a flood-prevention system.  However, with settlements being constructed over the marshland, the canal’s drainage is slowly being blocked. This may result in flooding of neighborhoods during monsoons.

It’s deeply disheartening that such is the condition of canals in Chennai. Polluted and ignored, they are a constant reminder of our wrongdoings. Yet, these canals also show us that our mistakes can be corrected and we can start afresh. With civic bodies trying to restore these water channels and organizations like the EFI striving to see them flow again, a better future is imminent.


Cooum to Marina

The sunrise and beach point of Marina is the adjoining point of Cooum River mouth with the Bay of Bengal crossing the Napier Bridge hailing from Kosasthalaiyar River, Thiruvallur.

The Cooum estuary is a lifeline of Chennai waters flowing for 72 kms with 32 kms in the urban part and 40 kms in the rural part.

The journey she undergoes is a unique story until she surrenders in the marina shoreline at Chennai. It’s considered a Dead River in Chennai owing to its sewage collection, garbage disposal and pollution from commercial and industrial establishments. 

Does this mean the pollution meets Marina, the face value of the city? 

The gushing waters of Cooum to the ocean continue to choke for years and the search for respite is on the envision! 

January 2021 witnessed foam deposits near the Napier Bridge, with findings of industrial effluents of phosphate floating the foreshore of Cooum mouth. 

Any restoration or clean up, fast becomes dead with steadfastness of civic negligence to turn it into an easy dumpyard. 

Can Cooum never be cleaned completely ever?


Lake Arasankazhani – Where Beauty and Restoration Have Come Together

By Lavanya

I’ve always wanted to live close to nature and that’s probably why my husband and I chose an area that is home to more than 15 lakes. We envisioned a life where we could gaze at the birds, walk along pristine waters, and even catch a glimpse of sea life! We felt that such a life would not only make nature an inherent part of our lives, but will also imbibe the responsibility of caring for nature in the minds of our children.

After we moved, we realized that life is never that rosy! A closer look at the nearby water bodies, especially the beautiful Lake Arasankazhani, near Perumbakkam showed the extent of litter around it. A few like-minded individuals came together and with help from the Environmentalist Foundation of India and Arun Krishnamurthy, we cleaned the lake, built bunds arounds it, planted native samplings, built a G-shaped island for birds, and created a sense of belonging with the local communities.

EFI restores Arasankazhani lake - The Hindu

The transformation was phenomenal. The first year was a lake surrounded by mounds of plastic while the next monsoon was one of bliss! We could spot about 80 different species of birds and to our wonder, we found that this area was originally called Vedanthangal because it was once on the path of migratory birds. Though we don’t know if we brought back all of them, it was surely a great joy to see so many birds in Dec-Jan.

As we continue to maintain the lake, we are not completely out of the woods. Waste dumping happens, especially during the hot summer months when some parts of the lake become bone dry. We also have a burial ground close by and there are also strewn liquor bottles and encroachments.

Arasankazhani Lake Restoration « Krish

Despite these challenges, there is hope because we have seen how small efforts have a big impact.


Our mineral thirst that depletes water

The world is increasingly looking at a green energy future with lesser reliance on fossil fuels as countries accelerate their transition to electric cars and products powered by clean energy.

So, where does ‘Lithium’ fit in all this?  Lithium popularly called ‘white gold’ is a soft silvery-white metal (cover picture shows lithium ingots) and is the magic ingredient in lithium-ion batteries that powers everything from our mobile phones, laptop computers, watches, and electric cars. Lithium is the king of the battery-world, super light that it makes up only 1-2% of a lithium-ion battery’s total weight. Unlike older lead-acid batteries, Lithium-ion batteries can be recharged and discharged thousands of times. As a reference, a single electric vehicle like Tesla or Tata Nexon needs a minimum of roughly 10 kilograms of lithium to power the car.

Demand for lithium powered batteries is expected to increase tenfold by 2030 and if lithium is the key to a low-carbon future by electrifying transport, storing grid-scale electricity where is the real problem? The answer lies in lithium extraction.

South America’s ‘ABC’ and Australia:

Majority of world’s lithium is found in rock and clay deposits as solid mineral such as in Australia and North America , but South America has lithium in underground brine reservoirs below the surface of dried lake beds.

In South America, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile are known as the “Lithium Triangle” and estimated to hold at least half of world’s lithium and lithium-rich water is pumped from beneath the surface of dry lakebeds called ‘salars’, and allowed to evaporate in the direct sunlight of the starkest deserts in the world.

Australia currently supplies about 55% of the world’s lithium by using traditional mining of rocks containing lithium ores, particularly a mineral called spodumene: a mix of lithium, aluminum, silicon, and oxygen.

Perils of mining:

In South America, availability of water is the biggest challenge. To extract lithium and other rare minerals, miners start by drilling a hole in the salt beds and pumping out salty, mineral-rich brine to the surface. The brine is then left to evaporate for months at a time in evaporation pools and then filtered to get lithium carbonate – white gold – that can be extracted.

It’s a relatively cheap and effective process, but it uses a lot of water ~ 500,000 gallons per ton of lithium. In Chile’s Salar de Atacama, mining activities consumed 65 per cent of the region’s water resulting in water shortages , not enough water for animals to survive and impacting local communities that sell meat, textiles and crafts made from Llama wool. Producing local food such as peas and potatoes are strained due to water diverted for lithium extraction.

Poorly managed mining operations have left a legacy of environmental problems, affecting locals due to land transformation, resulting in loss of forestry, agricultural land and destroying ecosystems.

India’s lithium reserves and mining:

India’s first lithium plant has been set up at Gujarat in 2021, where lithium ore would be refined to produce base battery material. The Department of Atomic Energy, Government of India has discovered 1600kg lithium in Mandla district of Karnataka. India has been dependent on lithium imports from China, Japan, and Taiwan for its electric battery supply for a long time, which makes this discovery more significant and accelerates India’s energy goals of 350GW from renewable energy by 2030.

America’s race to power electric vehicles:

America is racing towards becoming a leader in producing raw materials such as lithium, cobalt and nickel as carmakers ramp up manufacturing of electric vehicles. China is currently the go-to place for batteries and to reduce reliance on foreign sources for raw materials, mining projects are being backed by investors rushing to get permits for production and secure contracts with battery companies and car manufacturers.

In California , a 110-year old Salton sea has briny water beneath it that is being planned for lithium extraction but environmentalists warn that water disappearance due to lake bed being exposed will result in several challenges such as loss of marine life, oxygen deprivation resulting in emissions of foul odors to name a few but with a bigger problem of fewer natural resources left in the decades to come.

Sustainable alternatives to lithium:

Lithium batteries do have a few challenges such as prone to overheating and catching fire, can’t charge quickly and limited capacity to handle sudden surges of current.

Zinc-anode batteries, aluminum-anode batteries offer sustainable alternatives that are relatively safe and inexpensive, have a long cycle life, and higher capacity to store energy than many other metals. These kind of latest solid-state battery technologies are still evolving and technical hurdles, high manufacturing costs are limiting their expansion.

Read this article on the landscape of solid-state batteries which are light weight, use ceramic separators for high conductivity , resistance to dendrite formation ( a phenomenon that can short circuit a battery and lead to overheating and failure) having potential to be used in a wide range of applications . Less weight in the car from a lighter battery system can reduce chassis weight, tires, brakes, and more, which can improve vehicle performance and efficiency.

If successful, these batteries could result in a 50-80% improvement vs today’s leading electric vehicles with better mileage.

In conclusion:

It is undeniable that mining makes almost every aspect of our modern lives comfortable but the effects of mining on our natural world has transformed the surface of Earth. What is sadly left behind is a scarred future that has extracted metals locked for millions of years within rocks or underground. Look at these images that remind us that in our bid to live in a modern society we have reshaped our planet and nature to devastating proportions . Sustainability is no longer a choice, but our greatest responsibility and we need to collectively work towards protecting our environment and support all possible alternatives that avoid a climate disaster.


Perungalathur Aeri

The big beautiful bank.

Perum – Kulam – Urr  meaning ” A Place with a Big Pond ” is a southern suburban beauty of Chennai with waters spread across 55 acres adjoining Peerkankaranai Lake.

The scenic landscape has a plateaued island in its centre tangible from the highway NH-45 with mountains backdropping leaving the jaws drop and gaze at the nature by any traveller, beholder and bystander.

Perungalathur and Peerkankaranai are born and living twins as towns, lakes and inhibitions of southern Chennai waters. Their connectivity between Vandalur and Tambaram make them the hub spot for transportation and logistics of trucks, railway gate and bus terminus.

The surplus waters of Mudichur and Tambaram join the mouth of the twin lakes. Based on the research, Care Earth (https://careearthtrust.org/) organization has identified the lake to be home for different species of fishes (8 types) and birds (16 types).

In 2017, the residents and Care Earth Trust took the voluntary initiative (https://careearthtrust.org/wetland-restoration/protection-and-restoration-of-perungalathur-wetland/)  to clear the weeds (“Velikathan” – a weed that saps groundwater and spreads) and restore the lakeside. The freshwater lake is a portable aqua which has gained precedence to be conserved from sewage disposal, garbage dumping and encroachments.

A stretch of the lake gives a vicinity to Shriram Gateway real estates and IT park along a mountainous region heading as a flyover to Vandalur, the outskirts of the city. 

Tamil Inscriptions deciphered reveals Tambaram lakes to be flood control bunds maintained since Cholas, Pandyas and Vijayanagar dynasties of the twelfth to fifteenth century A.D. Perunkulathur, as named during the Chola period, meant a large village with a big tank.

The history epigraph shows that Perunkulathur belonged to Thiruchuram, the modern Tirusulam village near Pallavaram (being then the part of Nedungundram Nadu after the village of Nedungundram) 

The area is famed for its aquatic blanket from times immemorial. The need for its preservation of the 55 acres is felt lately in 2017. And, it’s important to participate in the lake clean ups, lake conservation programs and join hands to safeguard and restore the reservoir from the brunt of vulnerabilities.

Sources :




“Pallikaranai Thamarai Kulam”

Index of Pallikaranai – The Lush Lotus Pristine Pond

A tranquil, ancient, serene, and naturally formed space, the “Pallikaranai Thamarai Kulam” is a picturesque pond of Chennai’s only existential marshland, Pallikarani to behold pekins, domestic geese, and ducks perching and quacking, white lotuses smile, small tadpoles tickle your senses, and dancing nut grasses.

The Lotus pond has been maintained for a decade to preserve its beauty and embellish the space. The children’s park, walking pavements on 4 sides, the newly built temple in the premises has attracted the community with an attachment of a ritualistic affinity.

The well-fenced nature’s carpet is surrounded by concrete jungles facing the main road upfront and sides, along with dense bushy green verdant trees at the back.

The four stepped structures in the mid-points of every side sloping to the ripples of water is a place to sit, relax and meditate, keeping one’s senses open to the voice of the birds, tadpoles, and grinning lilies.

The droplets of water conspicuous on the waxy lotus leaves surfacing the aquatic adhesion show how important it is to practice a detached-attachment lifestyle. 

The pond experiences a cycle of water capacity, being filled to the brim in the rainy season and dryness during summer. But, never has she ever been completely dry or ever breached out the brim.  

The banyan trees shading the place, the ringing of insects makes the whole destination a holistic ecosystem. Light reflections during sunrise and sunset cherish its environment with widespread scintillation. 

A deeper observation of the inland wetland would make you witness litters around the mushy natural lap. 

And would provoke thoughts of why? 

Is it because of the micro-businesses (juice, sundal, tender coconut) around the place? 

Is it due to civic negligence of waste disposal?

The landscape close to a 3-acre area was once upon a time widespread to 22 acres! 

Concrete jungles, shrinking space have rung an alert to restore the ecosystem, hence a restoration project propelled by the government in the decade has left 10% saved from the brunt of vulnerability. 

Why litter this beautiful, serene and nonchalant expanse? 

Can more dustbins preserve the landscape?

This natural architecture is home to its world of species and its high time that we wake up to conserve the pristine and wholesome support system.

Pallikaranai Lotus Pond has remained as the noticeable yet subtle face value of the area, a dry pond indicates water incapacity and a filled pond indicates water overflow. An adequate aqua indicates the stability of water flow in the area. 

Pallikaranai Lotus Pond has the significance of being a hub spot for: 

  • groundwater recharge, 
  • biodiversity co-existence of aquatic and terrestrial life, 
  • breeding ground for ducks, pekins, and geese, 
  • flood control, 
  • freshwater habitat with ecological value, 
  • rich tapestry acting as mini-reservoir.

Understanding and management of this haven of nature is critical amongst the community and mainly its prime users. Building awareness can gallop and catalyse in preserving this wonder of nature that could be passed on to explore for generations.

Signboards prohibiting littering the land and pond, strictly prohibiting feeding to animals may be a great solution to maintain cleanliness. More dustbins on the premises can aid in better waste disposal. 

This small universe has a lot to speak about, are we ready to listen without interrupting her oxygenating and cleansing voice? 

Is the community up to discern the seriousness of its existence, beauty, and importance by surmounting invasive litters?


The sound of silence…

Noise pollution cannot be seen but its dangers impact not only our health but also the well-being of animals and wildlife. As a result, millions of Indians are affected daily with health problems such as noise induced hearing loss, sleep disturbances, stress, heart, and blood pressure problems affecting all age groups.

What soothes us when we are caught in a cacophony of noise? …. Water.

Reverence for water and its cultural significance are universally recognized with calmness and serenity of water symbolizing harmony with the environment. When we are near water, or just the sight and sound of water releases neurochemicals that trigger an immediate response in our brain that promotes relaxation, wellness and increases blood flow to the heart.

Water reduces cortisol levels (the stress hormone), slows our breathing and heart rate, and allows us to gently move into a mildly meditative mood.

‘Blue Mind’ theory:

People can experience the benefits of the water whether they’re near the ocean, a lake, river, swimming pool or even listening to the soothing sound of a fountain,” says marine biologist and author of the book ‘Blue Mind’ , Wallace Nichols. Modern life has in many ways made us anxious, over-connected and over-stimulated and this state is referred to as ‘Red Mind’ that is in total contrast to the ‘Blue Mind’. Being around water has calming benefits on our minds and bodies.

‘Forest Bathing’ is indeed a medicine:

The concept of ‘forest medicine’ originated in Japan, a place where nature has long been celebrated. ‘Shinrin yoku’ which translates as ‘forest bathing’ considers forests mystical and trees having healing powers. Forest bathing basically means being in the presence of trees and appreciating nature’s beauty in an aimless manner. Forest bathing is not hiking or brisk walking but spending time gazing at trees, listening to running water, bird songs, breezes on branches, rumble of thunder, crunching leaves and much more.

Listening ‘Outward’:

Most of the time, we are listening ‘in’ to the sounds of our inner thoughts and chattering mind. To hear the forest, we listen ‘outward’ by tuning in to the forest’s frequency and listening in all directions and even closing our eyes to hear more keenly.

The impressive benefits of forest bathing are several : boosts mood and immune system function; reduces blood pressure, heart rate, stress, anxiety, and confusion; improve sleep and creativity; and even helps fight cancer and depression.

Forest bathing is a calming experience (Pic Credit- Unsplash)

India’s ‘quiet’ places:

As our population soars, cities and towns spread out, and roads stretch into even the most remote parts of the world, quiet is becoming increasingly scarce with a surge in tourism to national parks, monuments, and water bodies. The Covid-19 pandemic has increased footfall traffic in local parks and green areas raising noise levels in previously out-of-the-way spots. Increasingly, a growing coalition of environmental organizations, scientists, and grassroot activists are working to protect and restore quiet places.

Take a look at these maps where around 260 ‘quiet’ places have been identified as conservation spots and undisturbed areas worldwide. India’s ‘quiet’ places on this list are:

Few preserved ‘Quiet’ places in India

Need for designated ’quiet’ areas and water bodies:

If nothing is done to preserve and protect several such ‘quiet’ places from noise pollution, natural quiet may be non-existent in our world in the next decade. Silence is a part of our human nature, which can no longer be heard by most people.

Creation, identification, and protection of ‘quiet areas’ in public parks or other quiet areas in a cluster, near schools, hospitals and other noise-sensitive buildings and in quiet areas in open country are the key to setup a relaxing environment. Urban beaches, water fountains, misting towers, wading pools are examples of artificially created water themes popular in cities that provide an environment to relax and preserve the auditory experience of nature.

Listening to nature sounds, soothing sounds of a waterfall, bird songs using smart apps on our phones are popular methods to focus, relax and calm the mind. Check out this site where you can play soothing background sounds on your phone or computer while you continue with your day-to-day activities.

Close your eyes and listen for only a few seconds to the world you live in, and you will hear this lack of true quiet, of silence. All of us must do our best to protect one of the most important and endangered resources on the planet: silence.



Located within the largest mangroves in the world, the Sundarban Wetland is one of the largest wetland which covers an area of about 1,40,000 ha. The Indian Sundarban has an area
of about 9000 sq km. It lies in the delta formed by the River Brahmaputra, Ganges and Meghna on the Bay of Bengal. The Indian side of the wetland has also been recognized under the Ramsar Convention of wetlands of international importance since February 2019. Habitat of the Royal Bengal Tiger, it is located in a totally different bioclimatic zone. It is surrounded by the beautiful scenic nature and is also known internationally for its rich biodiversity of flora and fauna.

The wetland is considered as a biodiversity hotspot as it inhabits some of the rare and threatened species of the world like the Indian Python, estuarine Crocodile and Irrawaddy Dolphin. It is the only mangrove forest which is home to the
Bengal Tiger.

The Ramsar site also has around 260 species of birds and 40 species of plants including 34 of mangroves. More than 87 species of fish is also found including the critically endangered River Shark. It is a habitat to 8 of the 12 species of Kingfisher found in India. The vast variety of organisms found in this hotspot makes it an area to be protected and conserved fully.

Despite being designated as a protected wetland, it is facing some major threats. The foremost concern is the human interference as people live on the wetland’s periphery. They cultivate shrimp, fish, crabs and molluscs. Fishing has a high impact on the ecosystem of Sundarbans. Also the hunting and poaching of wild animals is another concern of the administration. The hotspot is also under the threat of climate change.

For the protection of this ecologically important spot, proper steps need to be taken from the government as well as the concerned authorities. Most importantly the local and native
people should be involved in the conservation process whose livelihood depends on this wetland. Regular checks should also be carried out to protect its beauty.




Lake Eutrophication

Eutrophication is one of the stages in the life cycle of a lake which happens over a period of years. Eutrophication is a natural process where the oxygen levels in the lake decreases as it ages and eventually just becomes a wetland.  

But due to pollution and industrialization, this process has fastened. Eutrophication is a state where the lake becomes toxic with high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and they are heavily silted. Eutrophication may be defined as inorganic nutrient enrichment of waters, leading to the growth of algae. Many lakes are in this state, this happens due to human activities, extensive agricultural practices and major anthropogenic activities like global warming, deforestation and large scale environmental destruction that has led to harmful effects on the ecosystem. 

Image by: tnluser

Effects of Eutrophication: 

A lake when there is limited availability of Phosphorus and nitrogen then it is called “Oligotrophic”, when there is higher levels of these chemicals available then it is called “Eutrophic”. An intermediate state is called as “Mesotrophic state”. 

The productivity of the lakes are high in the Eutrophic state, this causes major changes in the waterbody. 

  • There is reduced visibility in the lake because of discolouration. The light penetration is very low because of the algae blooms. When there is no light penetration, photosynthesis no longer occurs. 
  • Oxygen levels in lakes differ and no longer can sustain ecosystems. 
  • Eutrophication causes dense algal blooms and injures the aquatic ecosystem by poisoning of the water, clogging of gills and high nutrients in the water. 
  • Abundance of organic substances give the water disagreeable odors or tastes. 
  • The lake is prohibited from any social activity.
  • Eutrophication damages the ecosystem by decreasing the biodiversity and by increasing the water toxicity.

Why do water bodies become so rich in nutrients?

Phosphorus and Nitrogen are the main limiting factor for the ecosystem in freshwater. Phosphates tend to stick to the soil and carry along with it. Hence, Soil erosion is one of the main contributors to Eutrophication. Other sources of phosphorus are:

  • Fertilizers
  • Detergents
  • Untreated Sewage
  • Industrial Discharge
Image by: tnluser

As years pass by the algae in the lake die and sink to the bottom of the lake and are broken down by bacteria in the process they consume oxygen.  This over consumption of oxygen, decreases the oxygen levels in the lake. This condition tends to suffocation and death of fishes and plants in the water. 


The process of Eutrophication can be controlled at the inlet channels of the lake by not allowing phosphorus rich substances. Avoiding the overuse of fertilizers and encouraging people to adopt organic farming methods.   Water must not be commercialized but rather considered as a heritage protected and saved. Despite many efforts taken to improve the water quality, it results in pollution, fires and algal blooms. The action to prevent and protect these water bodies must be adopted not only in scientific ways but by citizens and with support of likeminded organizations. 


A Surviving Wetland

Spread over an area of 490 ha, Kanjli Wetland is one of the Artificial wetlands identified by the Indian Government. The wetland is upward of Harike Wetland which is situated in the Beas River basin in the Kapurthala district of Punjab. Since 2002, it has been internationally dedicated as a Ramsar Site. This makes it a water body of international importance. The Kanjli Lake is an integral part of the wetland. Kanjli not only has ecological importance but also some sacred and cultural significance for the people of Punjab.

The area of Kanjli was a part of the recreational spot or Saigarh for the Maharaja of Kapurthala. The Kanjli Lake was created in 1870 primarily for irrigating the vicinity by constructing headworks across the perennial Kali Bien Rivulet, a tributary of River Beas. This lake is located across an area of 184 ha.

The wetland holds a wide variety of life forms. It is also home to varied species of birds and flora and fauna. Kanjli is winter home to more than 50 species of migratory birds. The popular birds which inhabit Kanjli are Heron Common Moorrhan, Pond Heron and Purple Swanphen. The variety of tree found in this area include Ziziphus, Acacia, Mauritiana, Eucalyptus and many more. It also has some significant herbs and shrubs. Some of the common fishes found are Labeo, Cythus, Catla, Chana including others. The fauna of Kanjli include 4 species of mammals and 34 taxa of invertebrates. The lake is very famous for its picturesque views and is a tourist spot for birdwatching and boating.

However, from the past few years Kanjli is under ecological threat due to many stresses. The impact of pollution on the lake is enormously high and had lead to the Eutrophication of the water body. Due to extensive growth of Water Hyacinth, the oxygen level of the water has dropped enormously and lead to death of major life forms. Also the conversion of the wetland into agricultural land and human inhabitation has worsen the situation.

Management and Conservation measures have been taken by the concerned authorities but in vain. Government has also spent crores on the wetland but failed in maintaining the spot. The authorities also worked on controlling the spread of Water Hyacinth manually. More species of fishes have been introduced in the lake to lessen the effects of the exotic species. To prevent grazing by the cattle, fencing has been constructed around the wetland. Many biological researches are also being carried out to look for alternative measures.

Kanjli is the only wetland in Punjab which has Utricularia, a carnivore plant that eats insects. This is the importance of this wetland and we have to do our small bit in conserving this valuable entity.




Why do we need to rejuvenate our lakes?

How are lakes formed?

Lakes are formed where there is depression in the landscape. It is localized in a basin, surrounded by land apart from rivers and other outlets that are fed. Lakes are distinct from lagoons and are larger than ponds.

Life Cycle of Lakes

Image from Vermont Lay Monitoring Program Manual

Once lakes are formed, they do not stay the same just like how humans go through phases like teenage, youth, maturity, old age and then die. Lakes slowly die/ disappear when the sediments settle in the lake. The aging of the lake could take over hundreds or thousands of years but with human influence it could just take a few decades. The plants, microbes and algae die. The warm upper layer of the lake decomposes the plants and sinks in the basin. The lake becomes smaller and smaller in size and eventually becomes a mash land and the lake dries up. 

A lake is usually classified in following possible cases: 

Oligotrophic lakes: They are pristine lakes where the ecosystem is naturally undisturbed by human activities and unspoiled its beauty. Oligotrophic lakes are characterized by high water clarity, low nutrient concentration (low on Phosphorus and Nitrogen), low algae growth, and minimum level of aquatic plants. The oxygen levels in these lakes are high in oxygen levels throughout the water column. Since there is low algal growth, the light penetration is deep and there is low decomposition. Since there is less decomposition, the oxygen doesn’t get used up. 

Mesotrophic Lakes – These lakes have clear water and beds submerged with aquatic plants, medium level of nutrients (Phosphorus and Nitrogen) and increasing levels of algae and weeds growing. These lakes have clear water but will have algal blooms in summer. These lakes behave differently in summer, they separate into layers. The top layer of the lake becomes warm from the sun and contains algae. While, at the bottom layer the remains cool and may be depleted by oxygen in the mid-summer. This happens because as the algae and other organisms die and sink at the bottom. Since water in the bottom and surface do not mix, oxygen cannot be replenished. During this time, the fishes move to the upper layer. 

Eutrophic Lakes – Eutrophication is a natural process where the oxygen levels in the lake decrease due to pollution and industrialization. Eutrophication is a state where the lake becomes toxic with high levels of nitrogen and phosphorus and they are silted heavily. There is low water clarity, high levels of aquatic plant growth, and high nutrients. The oxygen levels in the lake are very low for any ecosystem to survive. 

Hyper Eutrophic Lakes – There is very low/ no water clarity, highly rich in nutrients and depleted of oxygen. Lack of oxygen causes the fish to die and makes it not suitable for any ecosystem to live.  

Stresses on Lakes 

Stresses on the lakes have caused impairment of the lakes. Lakes occupy just a fraction of the landscape but they are a major source of surface water bodies in urban cities. Over the years due to population, urbanization and industrialization etc… water bodies are exploited. Water bodies are used for resource provision i.e drinking, washing & irrigation, regulating services like flood and drought management, cultural services like religious practices and historic values. However these water bodies are sensitive to environmental stress.   

Lake restoration is an act/method/process/steps undertaken for revival of a lake. These refer to the methods taken inside and outside the lake. Lake restoration activities are done mostly to battle eutrophication. Eutrophication leads to loss of biodiversity.  

Benefits of rejuvenation of lakes: 

1. Acts as a natural reservoir, it increases the storage of water

2. It constitutes natural biodiversity by maintaining the quality of water and atmospheric temperature. 

3. It increases the Ground water level. 

4. It controls erosion of soil and reduces the risk of flood. 

5. The lake is home to flora and fauna, the lake becomes a place of recreation for people around.  Lakes are the most valuable sources which maintain the temperature and support the ecosystem.


Is there hope for the Thames of South India?

by Dakshina Kannan

What was once known as ‘Thames of South India’ is now a highly polluted and toxic river. Cooum river is 65 kms long and it originates from a village of the same name in Tiruvallur district. The river faces pollution from illegal disposal of untreated sewage, untreated affluents from industries and encroachments along its banks. Besides sewage and sludge, the river also contains heavy metals (like copper) and pesticide remnants that prevent the existence of flora and fauna.

A picture containing tree, outdoor, sky, nature

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Coovum: Before and After

Despite big budget (5000+ crores from a world bank partnership, 41 crores from Eco-Restoration plan etc.) restoration efforts, these actions tend to be counterproductive. Since there is no one to monitor and prevent sewage from being dumped into the river, sewage is still illegally dumped into Cooum by sewage tankers (or lorries). Unfortunately, the residents in Ambattur, Vanagaram and Adayalampattu are dependent on these tankers to collect sewage from their households.

As residents of Chennai, what can we do about the plight of Cooum? We can:

  • Analyze and understand where our household sewage goes. Whether we live in apartments or independent households, we have a responsibility to be aware of how our waste affects our environment. 
  • If we realize that our waste is being dumped in rivers like Cooum, we can look for alternatives to our sewage treatment. For example, a bio septic tank is a simple, cheap household solution that prevents our sewage from contaminating Cooum.
  • Hold our governments, businesses and NGOs responsible (in their treatment plans for Cooum). We can also ensure if the funds allocated to Cooum are spent wisely
  • opt for organic food. Since they are grown without chemical fertilizers, they will not contaminate the groundwater system and rivers in Chennai.

Yes, there is hope for the Thames of South India. Cooum’s pollution and toxicity is a complex problem involving many factors and stakeholders. Therefore, it is crucial that we understand our role and our stakeholders’ role in this pollution, so that we can make real changes. Besides fixing the sewage system, we have to tackle the root cause(s) of this problem.


Kabartal Wetland: The oxbow lake of India

The Kabartal Wetland (locally known as Kanwar lake) is Asia’s largest oxbow lake situated in the Begusarai district of Bihar. It is a residual oxbow lake, formed due to the meandering of Gandak river, a tributary of Ganga. Covering the majority of the Indo-Gangetic plains in northern Bihar, this lake was declared a Ramsar site in 2020, making it the first wetland in Bihar to be included in the Ramsar convention.

No photo description available.
Top view of Kanwar lake , Source – https://www.facebook.com/

What are oxbow lakes?

Oxbow lakes are crescent-like water bodies formed due to erosion and deposition in meanders of rivers. Meanders are loops or curved structures formed in the course of a river (as in figure 1) due to friction or tectonic activity. The speed of water flow in the outer section of this meander is more than the inner part causing its neck to become narrower over time. Eventually, the size of this loop increases making it harder for the river to flow through it so it opts for a straight path. Finally the ends of this meandered loop are separated by deposition of sediments or silt separating the river and a horseshoe-like structure called oxbow lake.


The Kanwar oxbow lake also houses the eminent Kanwar bird sanctuary which is one of the largest breeding grounds for migratory birds in India. From critically endangered to vulnerable, you can find over 100 species of birds during the peak season. The oriental white-backed vulture and greater adjutant are some of the rare species found.

Degradation of the water body:

A study conducted by Ashok Ghosh, scientist and chairman of the Bihar State Pollution Control Board, found that the lake covered 6,786 hectares in 1984 but reduced to a mere 2032 hectares by 2012. Illegal poaching, deforestation, land encroachment, and overgrazing have destroyed the lake’s natural ecosystem. The constant discharge of chemical effluents into the water body has made the water turbid and acidic, further harming the aquatic life.

Another concern is the lack of accountability by authorities. Even Though the lake is protected under the Wildlife Protection Act of 1972, no serious measures have been taken to preserve it. The district authorities have taken no action against the buying and selling of land designated to the wetland and illegal agriculture around it. Furthermore, land disputes between the local farmers and tribes have elevated the tension there.

A strong legal framework and co-operation from the locals is necessary for protecting this water body and the rare species that depend on it. Locals have to be educated and awareness has to be spread while the government must develop a coherent program to initiate conservation.


Alligator weed in Indian Lakes

Alternanthera philoxeroides (Alligator weed), a South American weed of the family Amaranthaceae, has been found in the lakes and water pools in the eastern parts of India, namely, West Bengal and Bihar. It is a noxious invasive weed. This species was introduced long ago in the tropics of the Old World, but its introduction into India has taken place during late years. This weed has recently also been found in Northern India.

As other American weeds, some fertile seeds of Alligator weed may have arrived in India with packing material during the Second World War. This weed species was first found in Kolkata. It reproduces vegetatively using Subterranean Shoots and under favorable temperature and moisture, it spreads rapidly and grows in masses.

Alligator weed was recorded during the vegetation survey of Wular Lake, Kashmir. Wular Lake, the largest freshwater lake in India, is located 34 km northwest of Srinagar at an altitude of 1580m. It is a shallow lake with a maximum depth of 5m and water temperature range from 2°C to 29.5°C during the year. It also provides important habitats to the migratory water birds. Because of the importance of the wetland to biodiversity, it was described as a Wetland of International Importance under Ramsar Convention.

The flowering of Alligator weed takes place in June-October in Kashmir. During the survey of the lake, the weed was found in six areas. The invasive shrub forms floating Islands on the lake. It forms dense and large masses, thus creates problems for the aquatic environment by obstructing light to enter and not allowing gaseous exchange. It also creates a probable ground for breeding of mosquitoes.

This noxious weed can be managed and controlled by chemical, mechanical and biological methods. The use of Flea Beetle in biological methods is quite effective in eradication of weeds. Mechanical or manual control involves local eradication of the weed at a few locations. Using 1% glyphosate for free floating alligator weed is effective. Inspection and proper survey should be done on a regular basis to check on the spread of the weed.

It is the time to develop and implement a management plan for alligator weed before it grows into uncontrollable rate and proportions.





Groundwater Replenishment

Groundwater is a natural resource of freshwater that soaks in the soil and stores in porous rocks and in other particles of the soil. It is also referred to as subsurface water to distinguish it from surface water. Groundwater accounts for nearly 95% of the freshwater resources. It can stay underground for hundreds of thousands of years, or it can come to the surface and help fill rivers, streams, lakes, ponds, and wetlands. Groundwater comes out of a spring or is pumped from a well. Both of these are common ways we get groundwater to drink. About 50 percent of our municipal, domestic, and agricultural water supply is groundwater. Groundwater composition depends on the kinds of soil and rocks the water has encountered in its movement through the subsurface.

Image from Worldatlas.com

How does water circulate?

Human activities and Groundwater contamination: 

The general nature of the water cycle has various stages. Both surface and Groundwater are a part of the hydrological cycle. There is constant movement of water from above, on and below the earth’s surface. The cycle has no end or beginning but it is traced from the precipitation. Precipitation may occur in the form of rain, snow and hail, wets the ground. As there is more precipitation, it filters through the ground. The rate of percolation depends on the type of soil, land use and intensity of rain. Water infiltrates fastly through sandy soil than clay or silt. Almost no water filtrates through paved areas. Rainwater that cannot be absorbed flows as runoff. 

When the soil cannot absorb anymore water it slowly moves to unsaturated surfaces by recharging the groundwater. The remaining runoff water moves towards rivers and eventually reaches the oceans. Water from surfaces that are not absorbed is evaporated. Oceans are the largest contributors to evaporation of surface waters. Evaporation and transpiration from plants rises above the earth’s surface, condenses and forms clouds. And then precipitation occurs. 

Groundwater is highly susceptible to contamination of the human activities and the chemicals on the surface. Pesticides like nitrogen and phosphorus applied to soil as fertilizers may leak into the soil when there is irrigation and precipitation leading to increased contamination of water. Industrial waste, mine refuse, radioactive wastes, household materials and other anthropogenic sources dissolved into water are detected in Groundwater. 

Is it hard to clean Groundwater?

Groundwater systems are complicated and the contaminants are dissolved so it takes longer time to clean.This makes it more difficult to design and build a suitable treatment plant that pumps the water to the surface and cleans the water.   

How to increase Groundwater?

We must be looking at conserving Groundwater.Today, we are not able to recharge Groundwater at the same rate as we pump out. Planting and protecting trees will help in groundwater recharge. Using injection and recharge injection wells alongside river sand and feeder channels will recharge the ground aquifers and increase the water table. 



Located at an altitude of 660 meters, Renuka Wetland is one of the most beautiful and famous natural wetlands of Himachal Pradesh. It is situated in the Sirmaur district and it is known to be the largest lake of Himachal. The wetland is named after Goddess Renuka and also from a distance the lake appears as if a women is lying on her back. It is also recognized as a Ramsar site of international importance since November 2005.

Many myths and legends are associated with the lake and it is of high religious significance. The Wetland is considered to be the birthplace of God Parshuram, the Sixth Incarnation of Lord Vishnu according to the Puranas. Saints from all over India visit the lake to experience the divine power.

Home to more than 440 species of fauna, the wetland has prominent vegetation ranging from dry deciduous like robusta, Terminalia, Dalbergia etc to hydrophytes. It also has around 103 species of birds of which 60 are native, Crimson-breasted Barbet, Bulbul, Myna and Egrets are some birds found.

Due to the continuous shrinking of the lake, the Wetland is under a threat of degradation. The probable reasons include pollution, siltation and extensive growth of weeds. Silt from the surrounding hills gets deposited in the bottom of the lake. Also the waste is being dumped into the lake which is a major issue.The total lake area covered reduced by 25 percent in the past years.

In order to protect the Wetland, the administration and the Renuka Vikas Smiti is carrying out regular checks to monitor the threat level. The fauna and flora; and the businesses of the local people would get affected whose livelihood depends on tourism if proper and strict steps are not taken to safeguard the shrinking wetland.




The Lake of Skeletons

Located roughly at an elevation of 16,470 feet (5,020m), Roopkund Lake is a glacial lake in the Chamoli district of state Uttarakhand. It is locally known as the Mystery Lake or the Skeleton Lake due to the hundreds of skeletons found near the lake. The lake is situated in the laps of the Himalayas and the area around the lake is not inhabited. It is surrounded by rocky glaciers and snow covered mountains and is a popular trekking spot of Uttarakhand.

With a depth of around 3 m, Roopkund is popularly known for the remains of several hundred ancient humans scattered around its shores. The skeletons are widely visible in one month when the ice melts.

According to the local Legend, Raja Jasdhaval, King of Kanauj along with his pregnant wife Rani Balampa and their servants went on a pilgrimage to Nanda Devi shrine and there they faced a heavy storm. And thus the entire group disappeared near the Roopkund Lake. The skeletons were first found by a British guard in 1942. The researchers have now found that the remains were of pilgrims and the locals which date back to 840 AD.

The lake has many conservation issues. The major concern is the regular disappearance of Skeletons, and if adequate steps are not taken, the remains might vanish in the years to come. It is being reported that the tourist take back the remains with them. Curious researchers and scientists are also transporting the skeletons on the back of mules for evolutionary research purposes. So the concerned authorities have decided to transform the area as an eco-tourism spot for the preservation of skeletons.

Roopkund is picturesque and scenic lake that is an amazing tourist destination in the Chamoli district of Uttarakhand near the base of two peaks namely, Trishul and Nanda Ghunti. Every autumn a religious festival is celebrated at Beedhi Bugiyal with full enthusiasm by the villagers. The Nanda Devi Raj Jat is also celebrated once in every twelve years in Roopkund in which Goddess Nanda is worshipped. Roopkund is an awesome place for Adventure junkies to trek in the autumn season.




Oil and Water

Peatlands are a type of wetlands forming a unique ecosystem , home to rare and unusual plants, wildlife and contain the most valuable natural store of the world’s soil carbon.

‘Peat’ refers to thick, muddy soil having high content of organic matter made up of dead and decomposing plants in water-logged conditions

Peatlands and Climate change:

Peatlands are vital: they are found in over 175 countries and are more widespread in Asia (38% of peatlands) and in North America (32%) followed by Europe (12%) and South America (11%). In their natural wet state , peatlands help minimize the risk of flooding and drought, and prevent seawater intrusion.

Why must we act to save them?

Majority of the world’s peatlands are intact, but peatlands are being drained, severely overexploited and damaged due to land converted for agriculture, burning and mining for fuel, among others.

When drained out, the underlying peat is exposed to air and the carbon it contains gets oxidized into carbon dioxide. As peatlands contain high carbon content (as high as 50%), they become tremendous emitters of methane and CO2 when disrupted.

Draining of Peatlands emits tons of methane and CO2

Palm oil and its popularity world-wide:

Palm oil is naturally reddish in color and is a ‘miracle’ product used in everything from food to construction. The food industry is responsible for 72% world-wide usage of palm oil. Cosmetics and cleaning products usage are around 18% and biofuels and animal feed account for the rest 10% globally.

Commonly known as the oil palm, this crop is a large woody tree easy to grow in the tropics and highly profitable for farmers, even in difficult soils. The fruits from the oil palm are harvested when ripe (has a color of fiery orange and red) and its kernel deep inside is where palm oil is derived.

Palm oil is unique in that it survives the high temperatures involved in cooking, does not spoil easily and all products with palm oil have a long shelf life. All parts of the Palm oil tree are useful : oil can also be burned for fuel, and the kernel seeds left over after processing can be crushed and used to make concrete, and the ash left after burning the palm leaves, trunks and fibers can be used as a replacement for cement.

So, what is the exact problem?

Due to the high demand of palm oil, drainage of peatlands for palm oil cultivation and massive deforestation is resulting in emissions of huge amounts of carbon dioxide into the air. Adding to the disaster is the extinction of wildlife such as orangutans, tigers, elephants, and rhinos in the tropical forests of the world.

Farmers produced 77 million tons of palm oil for the global market in 2020-21, and that is expected to grow to 108 million tons by 2024. Indonesia and Malaysia alone boast around 13 million hectares of oil palm plantation, almost half the world’s total. More than 75% of Indonesia’s Tesso Nilo national park, home to tigers, orangutans, and pygmy elephants, has been converted into illegal palm oil plantations. Globally, 193 critically endangered, threatened, and vulnerable species are threatened by palm oil production. For example, the decline of the Bornean Orangutan population by 60% within the last few decades is largely attributed to the loss of its peat swamp habitat.

Natural Palm Oil

Why is India in the spotlight and what are our alternatives?

India is the world’s single largest importer of palm oil and what happens to palm oil demand in India has a significant impact on the entire industry. As palm oil blends well with other oils and suits frying, Indian food specifically made in restaurants, hotels, low to middle-income households are the major consumers of palm oil. Apart from suitability for cooking, palm oil is cheaper when compared to other oils such as coconut oil, sunflower and soybean oils and can be easily imported from Malaysia, Indonesia etc. with shorter shipping times.

India imports around 95% of mostly crude palm oil and refining takes place in India. Most Indian consumers buy cheaper ‘loose’ palm oil and are unaware of the un-sustainable effects on production/processing of palm oil to the world’s remaining rainforests and its deforestation. Though we have policies such as NDPE (No Deforestation, No Peat, No Exploitation of people and local communities) , 58% of India’s palm oil imports are not covered by NDPE.

Palm oil is everywhere …

Palm oil is nearly impossible to avoid, and just as difficult to replace. Unfortunately, we do not have too many alternatives. Palm oil is found in everything from washing powder to toothpaste to shampoo to chocolates to chips.

Here are some sustainable ways that we as consumers can look at alternatives to palm oil products:

  • Majority of eatables like biscuits, bread, cake, fast-food like instant noodles, chips etc. are made from palm oil. Look out for ingredients such as ‘palmates’, ’sulphates’, ’glyceryl’ , vegetable oils and try buy organic instead.
  • Soaps, shampoos, toothpaste, cleaning detergents, make-up and cosmetics have palm-oil ingredients and try explore brands that are natural, sustainable, and made by ethical companies.
  • Explore usage and rotation to natural oils like coconut, sunflower, rice bran , mustard oils or ghee in day to day cooking and avoid palm oil.

In conclusion

Just imagine, it takes thousands of years to build up peat, but a matter of minutes to release harmful CO2 when peatlands are drained. Urgent action worldwide is needed to protect, manage, and restore peatlands and due to a lack of awareness of the benefits of peatlands, damaged peatlands are accelerating a climate crisis by emitting an estimated 1.3 giga-tons of CO2 every year. The good news is that countries like Indonesia have planned a permanent stop on new forest clearing for palm plantations.

Awareness is key to understand the impact of agricultural commodities like palm oil, cocoa, coffee, rubber etc.. on forests and water bodies , and each of us must look for more sustainable ways to meet our food, fuel and cosmetic needs and be willing to pay slightly more money for products that are justifiable and do not hurt the planet.

A lone orangutan perches on the remains of a tree in a felled forest in Indonesia

Tarsar-Marsar – The Twin Sisters

The Tarsar lake or Tar Sar, shaped like an almond, is an oligotrophic (low in algal production due to low primary productivity, but with quality of drinking water) and an alpine lake situated in the Kashmir Valley, more specifically in the area of Aru, in the district of Anantnag of Jammu and Kashmir. Same goes for Marsar lake, which is famous for its scenic beauty. Both the waterbodies are separated by a 13,000 ft mountain, but since both the lakes share the same characteristics and are so close in proximity they are often referred to as twin sisters. They came to be referred so, after the 16th Century Kashmiri ruler Yusuf Shah Chak mentioned the twin lakes in his poem to his beloved.

Tarsar lake

Both the lakes are drained in the opposite directions where Tarsar is drained by an outlet stream which flows into the Lidder River at the seasonal settlement of Lidderwat and stream of Marsar is joined by another stream from Mount Mahadev, which is called Telbal nallah (perennial flow of stream) which is considered to be the primary source of Dal lake.

The waters of Tarsar lake is known to change colours during the different parts of the day which ranges between Turquoise green and many shades of blue. It is dotted by numerous meadows with conifer trees, mountains and snow-capped peaks. When Marsar lake is viewed from the top, it is considered to have an aesthetic look with clouds covering the lake and the blue colours of the water that is surrounded by the rocky terrain makes it look picturesque and extraordinary, especially for the nature lovers. They are two most significant and prominent lakes in the district of Pulwama where Tarsar and Marsar are situated approximately 3 and 5 kilometres respectively from the village of Nagberan. A lot of folklores and legends surround the two lakes. Marsar is said to be prohibited from camping due to the frightening stories spread by the locals of the area, where one of them includes a torrential downpour if its untouched waters gets polluted by anyone. Both the lakes are famous for their tourist attractions in the Kashmir Valley of India which goes by the term of Tarsar-Marsar trek, which is a crossover expedition from Aru to Sumbal village of the Sind Valley. The nature lovers can visit the lakes during the time of summer where they will be able to spot a variety of birds like the black bulbul, high-flying coughs and the Himalayan golden eagles. Overall Its quaint and peaceful environment is what makes the twin sisters captivating and delightful.

Marsar lake









The Story of Water and Wildlife

The Environmentalist Foundation of India, E.F.I, is a wildlife conservation and habitat restoration group. Over the years, our focus has always been to protect and conserve the environment. E.F.I since it’s inception in 2007 has successfully revived 132 water bodies across 15 states in the nation. In doing so, several lifeforms have thrived and rejoiced in these newly rejuvenated water bodies. When we restore a water body, fish first return, then tadpoles, amphibians and reptiles, creating a new biodiversity hotspot in the region.

Rejuvenating a water body does not only benefit wildlife at large, but also the neighboring community. The impacts that restoring a water has are a plenty, ranging from increase in water storage capacity, replenishment of the ground water, to decrease in spread of waterborne diseases. We’re thankful to all our partners and the government who has constantly supported us in our efforts.

Vandalur lake

This year’s theme for World Wildlife Day is “Forests and Livelihood: Sustaining People and Planet”. A truly important theme as it serves to be an inclusive yet diverse topic. One such an effort by the government is that of the recent addition of the Srivilliputhur-Megamalai Tiger Reserve in Tamil Nadu.

TN to get its fifth tiger reserve between Meghamalai and Srivilliputhur |  The News Minute
The News Minute, thenewsminute.com/article/tn-get-its-fifth-tiger-reserve-between-meghamalai-and-srivilliputhur-142947

This newly established tiger reserve not only serves to protect the critically endangered tiger and wildlife but also aims to protect the Vaigai river that flows through it! This has worked out before in the revival of the Thamirabharani river when the Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve was established in Papanasam.

“Megamalai will soon have a tiger reserve if the Union environment ministry’s proposal goes through. Unchecked encroachments, grazing of cattle, tea plantations and cash crop cultivation in Megamalai are now posing a threat to the Vaigai. Experts point to the revival of the Thamiraparani after the Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve (KMTR) in Papanasam was opened and is a proven strategy that could be replicated to save the Vaigai.”

Deccan Chronicle, https://www.deccanchronicle.com/140824/nation-current-affairs/article/tiger-reserve-rejuvenate-vaigai

We thank the government for indulging in such efforts to protect our nation’s wildlife and water.

Volunteer for India and her Environment with E.F.I, Jai Hind


The Serenity of Manasbal

A scenic and a calm lake situated about 32 kilometres from the city of Srinagar of J&K, the Manasbal lake is considered to be one of the least known waterbodies despite its proximity to the city. The lake is seated in the Valley of Jhelum and covers an area of up to 22 kilometres in length with a depth of 12 metres. Its name was derived from the holy lake of Manusarvar which skirts the mountains of Kailash. Despite being a least popular lake, it is considered to be one of the jewels of Kashmir amongst the numerous lakes.

The lake is surrounded by a number of majestic hills and is filled with lotus plantation and other vegetation, especially during the times of summer, which attracts a lot of aquatic birds. During the times of Spring, a number of watercress plantation can be viewed on the northern and eastern shores of the lake. A fissure can be seen in the middle of the lake, which runs from east to west of Manasbal. The lake is considered to have no major inflow channels, and so its water supply is managed through water inflow that comes in the season of Spring and also the precipitation.      

It is predominantly surrounded by the three villages of Kondabal, Jarokbal and Gratbal which overlooks the waterbody. The locals of the area, use the lake as a source of water and also use the waterbody for fishing purposes for getting food and also use the plants for fodder. Many of them, are also involved in harvesting the rootstocks of the lotus plantation, that are extensively used for eating, all over the State.


The lake is construed to be one of the ancient waterbodies where its origin is still uncertain. Some of the Locals believe that the lake is bottomless, where over the years, the human pressure resulted in the lake to become eutrophic. The waterbody contains a lot of submerged weeds, especially during the times of Summer, where the lake is considered to be at the height of Tourist Season. A number of water-skiing activities apart from other water sport activities can be done as a part of tourism. The lake also has facilities for Shikara riding, which is considered to be the Kashmir counterparts of Venice’s Gondolas. They are small wooden boats that are better suited to be ridden by three to four people.

Today, to protect the lake from littering and pollution, a number of conservation projects has been undertaken by the Government as well as the public to restore the glory of Manasbal lake.






The Balancing Act: Analysing the role of Seemai Karuvelam Trees

Most of the wetland ecosystems in the city of Coimbatore are populated with the Karuvelam tree known as Babool. This species has particularly found mention in wetland restoration activities in the south of our country. The Seemai Karuvelam tree, or prosopis juliflora as it’s known biologically, is a species native to West Africa and was introduced in India by the Britishers to meet the increasing need for charcoal. They grow well in dry regions where rainfall was less than 200 mm. The tree was brought to Tamil Nadu in the 1960s as fuelwood. Slowly, these seeds started drifting into dams and rivers, causing problems. The plant according to multiple reports, absorbs excess ground water, adding to the woes of the water- starved state. Several drives have been organised for the eradication of these trees from wetland and dryland ecosystems owing to its negative impacts on the water table and its ability to prevent other natural growth around it. Over the years studies have brought to us the positive and negative effects of this species. A large portion of the rural population in TN depends on the trees for their livelihood. The trees have traditionally been extensively used as fuel wood, charcoal. It is a major boon for impoverished people subsisting in those environments as it provides them with badly needed shelter, reduces erosion, improves micrometeorology, and is a source of food, feed, fuel, medicines and cosmetics.

However, it can prove to be toxic to other biota in ways that allow the invasives to monopolise space and nutrients at the exclusion of other species and this leads to a decline in the proportion of indigenous woody species. The thickets also provide breeding grounds for mosquitoes, causing an increase in the incidence of malaria. It is clear that keeping the population of Karuvelam under control is crucial to maintain biodiversity by allowing for native species to establish themselves. However an attempt to completely eradicate this species holds strong implications for the lower sections of society and particular wetland species that have evolved to grow dependent on these trees for shelter and breeding grounds. It is important to understand it’s never possible to restore an ecosystem to its previous state but we need to rethink the role of such invasive species in light of the equity question and changing requirements for maintaining the stability of ecosystems.

Trrishala Kumarswamy


Green hydrogen to our rescue …

“If there is magic on this planet, it is contained in water.”  

Loren Eiseley

Let us start with a quiz question: What is the energy source in the coming decade that is believed to end the era of fossil fuels such as coal/gas/petroleum and slow down our Earth’s warming?  

The answer is ‘green hydrogen’.

Hydrogen is the most abundant element on Earth and locked up in huge quantities in water, rocks and minerals and most widely used in industrial applications such as refining petroleum and removing sulfur content in oils to produce cleaner fuels, producing fertilizers , providing heat and power , as rocket fuel and for processing foods among others . (Fun fact: Hydrogen is used to produce sweeteners that go into chewing-gum).

Different shades: Brown, Grey, Blue, and Green hydrogen

Depending on the energy sources and production processes, hydrogen is categorized by different colors.

Green hydrogen production mechanism – Source SGN

Benefits of ‘Green’ Hydrogen:

‘Green’ hydrogen is the new mantra for a greener planet and most countries including India are all embracing green hydrogen to reduce their green-house gases (GHG) emissions.

Several industries such as in steelmaking, cement and fertilizers, shipping and aviation are reducing dependency on fossil fuels like coal, oil and gas as raw materials and adopting hydrogen as their high-quality fuel. Hydrogen fuel cells that power electric vehicles are transforming the automotive industry and are set to replace gas guzzling vehicles in the next few decades. These fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) combine hydrogen stored in a tank with oxygen from the air to produce electricity, with water vapor as the by-product.

Future aircrafts are looking at hydrogen to power their commercial aircraft operations and read this article around Airbus journey towards green hydrogen. The energy density of green hydrogen is three times that of traditional jet fuel, making it a promising zero-emissions technology for aircraft fuel.

Hydrogen cities – South Korea and Saudi Arabia lead the way:

South Korea has embarked on an ambitious mission to create 3 ‘hydrogen’ cities by next year. These cities will use hydrogen as the major fuel for their cooling, heating, electricity, and transportation. Seoul is focused on promoting hydrogen-powered passenger cars and commercial vehicles in partnerships with Hyundai Motor Group and other car manufacturers, while increasing the number of hydrogen charging stations and offering government subsidies for the purchase of hydrogen cars.

Hydrogen powered city near Seoul

Saudi Arabia is building a new city on the edge of the Red sea called ‘Neom’ and it is touted as the world’s most livable destination. Home to a million people, Neom will have flying taxis and robots for domestic help among other services and guess what will power this city? Not oil. Instead, Neom will be powered using ‘green hydrogen’.

The advantage that Saudi Arabia has is the availability of abundant wind and solar power that can be used to produce green hydrogen , providing electricity to power homes and electric cars, run energy-intensive industries like concrete and steel manufacturing as well as the transportation industry.

Neom city in Saudi Arabia

What is India doing ?

Currently India’s energy mix is around 60% from coal, 14% from hydro, 8% from gas, 2% from nuclear, and renewable energy (solar/wind/biomass) is around 16%. India’s goal is to increase its energy source from renewables to 40% by 2030 and that includes ‘green hydrogen energy’ contributing to 4% of renewable energy.

In Budget 2021 , Finance minister Nirmala Sitharaman has announced a focused hydrogen mission from renewable power sources that aims to reduce India’s carbon footprint with major emphasis on clean energy.

India’s top energy companies Reliance Industries, Adani Group, NTPC, Indian Oil Corp are increasingly looking at moving to carbon-free fuel such as green hydrogen and investing in technology to replace coal and crude oil with clean electricity and hydrogen. Heavy-duty, long-distance transportation, where electric vehicles would not be competitive is an area that green hydrogen fuel can make a huge difference.

What are the challenges today ?

Green hydrogen technology is still being fine-tuned, the process of electrolysis is expensive, and storage of hydrogen is complex as its weight and volume are high. It is also not easy to simply replace all existing infrastructure with hydrogen technology and hence transition to green power will take time.

Currently green hydrogen costs about three times as much as natural gas and it is anticipated that in 10 years’ time the costs will be comparable. As countries and corporations make huge investments towards a carbon free future, it may be sooner that we have this ‘miracle from water: green hydrogen’ a part of our daily lives.



Picturesque and elegant, Udaipur is a beautiful city, also known as the Kashmir of Rajasthan. It is also known as the city of lakes and Venice of the East. Undoubtedly, it is one of the most romantic cities of India situated between the pristine waters of its famous lakes and the ancient Aravalli Ranges. The city is a mixture of pretty sights and experiences which makes it an inspiration for the artists. The gorgeous palaces and lakes makes Udaipur a perfect spot for tourists. Lakes make a perfect blend to the romantic air of Udaipur.

Udaipur is genuinely popular for its lakes and water bodies. The breathtaking view of the lakes and mountains gives a sense of relief and peace to the local people as well as the visitors. Since many ages these lakes have been providing water to the nearby areas for their development. In the dusk light, boating in the lakes gives a soothing and mesmerizing experience.

Lake Pichola, Udai Sagar Lake, Fateh Sagar Lake, Rajsamand Lake and Jaisamand Lake are the five significant lakes of the city.

Surrounded by the majestic mountains, forts and palaces, Pichola lake is located at the heart of the city. It is one of the largest and oldest lakes of Udaipur. The beautiful lake was built by Pichhu Banjara during the rule of Maharana Lakha in 1362. It is mesmerizing to watch the grey green mountains cast their shadows in the water under the setting sun. There are four islands on the lake, namely: Jag Niwas, Jag Mandir, Mohan Mandir and Arsi Villas. Bridges ate also constructed to connect different places of the lake.

This lake is located at a distance of 13 km in the east of Udaipur. The lake was constructed by Maharaja Udai Singh in 1565. Udai Sagar is a famous tourist spot with small pristine waterfalls and the clear green water. The lake is also surrounded by hills and is home to many myths and legends. Today the lake is 4 km long, 2.5 km wide and 9 m deep.

Located next to the Moti Magri Hills, Fateh Sagar Lake is one of the most soothing spots of Udaipur. It is pear shaped and fronted by the green Aravalli hills. The lake was constructed by Maharana Jai Singh in 1678. It is the second largest artificial kake in Udaipur and is 2.4 km long and 1.5 m deep. The overflow of water during the monsoons in the lake is regulated by the Overflow Channel. There are three small islands on the lake.

Next to the lush green mountains and the marble temples and palaces, Jaisamand Lake is a vision to behold. The lake is the second largest artificial lake in Asia. It was built by Maharana Jai Singh in 1685 while making a dam on Gomti River. The lake is also known as Dhebar and is 14 km long.

Situated 66 km in the north of Udaipur, Rajsamand Lake is one of the spectacular sites in Udaipur. A 17th century dam is constructed accross its stretch and holds a marble embankment on its southern end. The lake is also known as Rajsamudra Lake. Constructed in 1600 by Maharana Raj Singh, the lake is 60 feet deep. River Gomti provides water to this lake.

The greatness displayed by every aspect of picturesque Udaipur, especially the glorious lakes and water bodies is sure to attract tourists. The lakes of the city capped with the majestic Aravalli Ranges add to the scenic beauty. It is also famous for its Rajput era palaces and the most popular is the Lake Palace which covers the small island in Lake Pichola.

Udaipur is indeed the best place for art and tranquility.

https://www.andbeyond.com/tailormade-tours/a-splash-of-colour-in-rajasthan/ http://www.rainwaterharvesting.org/udaipur_lake/udaipur_lakes.htm https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.fabhotels.com/blog/lakes-in-udaipur/amp/


Halasuru (Ulsoor) Lake Story

Halasuru Lake sunset – Image Via fabhotels

Located on the North- Eastern part of Bangalore, it is a man made lake spread across 50 hectares. The beauty of the lake is enchanted by the islands in it.

History and Legendary story behind the lake

Halasuru Lake – Image by Reckontalk via metrosaga

Halasuru lake is one of the oldest lakes in Bangalore, dates back to 1537. The lake’s catchment area is 1.5 km2 . As per the ancient stories, Kempe Gowda II was travelling through the forest near Halasuru. He was tired and fell asleep under a tree.

Someshwara Temple in 1890. Image by Sreelatha N Prasad via metrosaga

 This was the tree under which Mandava Rishi meditated and worshipped God Someswara. It is said that God Someswara appeared in his dreams and showed him a hidden treasure. Kempe Gowda II found the treasure and thus built the Someswara Pagoda and Halasuru lake. This is also significant as, One of the 4 pillars which mark the boundaries of Bangalore laid by Kempe Gowda II is near Ulsoor lake. The lake was then developed by Sir Lewin Bentham Bowring, then Commissioner of Bangalore. The lake has islands which support the ecosystem around. 

Scenic Beauty and Attractions

Halasuru Lake – Image via MakeMyHangout

It is spread across 123 acres. It is one of the major tourist attraction in Bangalore. The lake is surrounded by lush green trees. The lake attracts people for its scenic beauty, sunrise, morning walk, play area for children, evening walk and boating activities or for one to just sit and relax. The lake also serves as a visarjan spot for Ganesh Chaturthi festival. 

Trees, birds, insects and aquatic life. 

The lake is surrounded by very rich and bird attracting trees and flowering plants. The lake has 4 islands, and is home to several species of birds, butterflies and many species of aquatic life. Although, due to the poor environment habitat only a few species of fish exist. 

The lake suffers from many environmental challenges like poor water quality as waste water pipes are let into the lake. Efforts have been made to restore and clean the lake from pollutants. Diversification of sewage pipe lines will reduce the pollution to the lake.  This will help in keeping the lake alive. 


An Evening at the Madambakkam Lake

On the 9th of January 2021, around 3: 30 pm, a group of energetic volunteers took on the mission to paint the bridge on opposite to the outlet of the Madambakkam Lake. The bridge which was previously a plastic laden spot for antisocial activities now has a different look on the whole. The volunteers white washed the inner side of the bridge and painted it with environment conservation and awareness building messages and pictures.

Close to 20 random people stopped by to see what the volunteers were up to on this bridge and the look of suspicion soon turned into smiles as they saw what the volunteers were doing. A few of the people were even very supportive and showed interest to join the next activity at the lake. During the activity the lake was visited by lots of people mostly families to watch the lake overflowing and to take in the scenic beauty while spending some time with family.

The activity carried on till 5:30pm and closed with an interactive orientation session, where the volunteers were introduced to topics like:

  • What was the state of the lake before and after restoration.
  • Need and importance of Community engagement in water conservation.
  • Importance of the creation of the awareness on real time result oriented environment conservation within the volunteers and their family.

The variety of activities that EFI hosts has a two-fold impact; firstly the conservation of the environment and secondly the strong psychological impact on the volunteers, wherein they are sensitized on the field about the results of improper waste management and excessive use of plastic thereby forming a basic link of an awareness chain. This happens when the information and experience they gain through these activities are passed on to the general public and their families.


The City of Vanishing Lakes

‘Once destroyed, nature’s beauty cannot be repurchased by any price’ – Ansel Adams

Banglore’s transformation from the ‘Garden city’ to the ‘Garbage City’ has been a prolonged process but what intrigues scientists till today is the story of its lost lakes. Proudly housing more than 200 lakes in the 1980s, the lakes of Bangalore were Karnataka’s pride. These pristine and scenic waters not only attracted tourists from around the world but also hosted an assortment of fauna. 

Ulsoor Lake
Source- https://www.fabhotels.com/blog/

In the past decade, Bangalore has experienced a population explosion due to the numerous opportunities it offers in the IT industry. Rapid urbanisation has compelled builders to seize the land belonging to water bodies and use it for satisfying human needs. The city has transformed into a concrete jungle destroying nature and wildlife. According to the House committee report on lake encroachment, of the 837 lakes in Bengaluru Urban district, 88 lakes covering an area of 1,307 acres have completely disappeared. Moreover, 80% of the existing lakes are contaminated and unfit for use.

In January 2018, Bellandur lake caught a 30-hour fire, engulfing the neighborhood in flames. Being the largest lake of Bangalore and the most abused one, Bellandur lake carries 40% of the city’s discharged sewage. In addition to raw sewage, illegal effluents are also dumped into the body containing chemicals and oils. Oils form a layer on the surface of water making it highly inflammable and prone to fires.

Image result for fire in bellandur lake
Fire from Bellandur lake , Source – https://www.thestatesman.com/

Toxic foaming/ frothing has also become a common phenomenon due to excessive adulteration in lakes. Varthur lake spat out toxic foam onto roads causing the commuters to fall prey to skin irritation and burning. High amounts of ammonia, phosphate, and very low dissolved oxygen in the water caused the snow-like foam to pile up and seep on to the road. Till a few years ago, Varthur lake was a hub for migratory birds from South Asia but as the sewage started seeping in aquatic life terminated, and eventually birds stopped visiting.

Image result for varthur lake froth on roads
Froth coming from Varthur lake, Souce- https://www.downtoearth.org.in/

In 2002, the Lake development authority(LDA) was established by the government of Karnataka to regenerate and develop lakes but the authority was unable to bring about any change in the state of affairs as it lacked legal powers. The government took no responsibility for the same and failed to impose fines on violators.

Image result for sewage going into bangalore lakes
Source- https://www.thehindu.com/

The lost lakes of Bangalore will never return but the existing lakes should be preserved with the joint efforts of the government and citizens. We must conserve these gifts of nature before it’s too late…



Uttarakhand, also known as DEVBHOOMI by many is not only a state of picturesque geography and breathtaking adventure sports but also a place full of myths and legends.

Located at an elevation of 1200 meters above sea level, Naukuchiatal is a beautiful hill station for mountain lovers that is close to the majestic Bhimtal Lake. Surrounded by the gorgeous Kumaon mountains, the small retreat spot is famous for its irregular shaped and pristine nine-cornered lake. Decorated with natural beauty all around, the lake is the deepest (175ft) among all the Himalayan lakes in Nainital.

Named as Naukuchiatal because of its nine-cornered irregular shape, the lake has an inseparable association with History and Mythology. It is believed that it was created as a blessing by Lord Brahma (the Creator in Hindu Mythology) after a hard wish or tapasya by the local people. Also a small temple dedicated to Brahma is situated nearby. Another myth or belief is that if one performs parikrama of the lake, he/she is in good fortune.
It is believed that no one can see the nine corners of the lake at one time. If a person is able to see all the corners, there is a myth that he/she will either die or attain nirvana.

Naukuchiatal is also famous for the nearby Lotus Pomd. It is full of pretty Lotus flowers. Colourful Kingfishers add to the mystique of the pond. A board near the pond clearly says- NO PLUCKING OF FLOWERS.

As mentioned above, Naukuchiatal is found to be an amazing place for peace lovers with all the picturesque views and adventurous sports. The place is found to hold an array of Recreational activities such as birdwatching, boating and angling. For the adventure junkies, there are a number of blood pumping activities like paragliding, yatching, paddling and parasailing. Every year in the month of May-June, Escape Festival is celebrated with full enthusiasm.

It is indeed a worth travelling location for nature lovers and tourists for spending some quality time with yourself in peace.







SILT – A blessing in disguise!

Image via wordpress

Silt is created when rocks are eroded or worn away by wind or water. Silt is made up of tiny rock and mineral particles that are smaller than sand. It can be transported by water, wind, ice and deposited. As silt flows along it chips more rocks.. Silt is found in soil along with other types of sediments like gravel and clay. The soil can be classified as silt if it has 80% of silt. Silt settles in water and gets deposited in lakes, ponds and wetlands. 

Environmental Impact

Increases the risk of flooding: As silt accumulates, it does not allow groundwater recharging. The capacity of the lake/pond reduces, thus leading to flood when there is heavy rainfall. 

Loss of fish and wildlife: The oxygen level in the water reduces thus not suitable for aquatic life to survive. It often creates an acidic condition, reducing the quality of water. 

Dense algae and bad odor: Stagnant water gives an unpleasant smell and the high nutrient levels of silt encourages algae blooms. In summers, the water body gets warmer resulting in an increased growth of algae and weeds.

Silt can also change the landscape of where it deposits. Where there are less or no trees, deposits of silt can harm the ecosystem. Fertilizers, chemicals and industrial waste can runoff along with silt and become toxic. Toxic silt is harmful for the river, lake and pond. It affects plants, vegetation, aquatic life and contaminates the water. 

Fertile Soil

Silt is light and fertile for growing crops, it promotes water retention and air circulation. Silty soil is rich in nutrients, also easily cultivable. Silty soil supports diverse growth of plants and crops. Silt deposits are used for agriculture, they provide high yields. 

Lotus plant blooms above water but takes its roots in silty, muddy wet soil.

Many organisms live and survive in silt. Frogs hibernate during winter in silt at the bottom of a lake or pond. This is because water does not freeze/ get cold at the bottom this provides some insulation or warmth. 

Silt Traps

Silt impacts the freshwater ecosystem and aquatic life. It controls the flow of silt by having barriers.  

Silt traps – Silt traps are structures made of boulders, they trap silt. They are built alongside drainage ways of water. They reduce the accumulation of silt in the lake bed. 

Silt Fence – Silt fence is used to catch the sediments/silt that runoff. Silt fences are made up of wire and fabric. This is used in construction sites to restrict the flow of contaminated water to nearby areas. Silt fence is also called a filter fence. It controls the silt and sediment flow into rivers, lakes and ponds. It should be installed alongside the contour of the slope. 

Reference: silt | National Geographic Society


Periyar River- The Pulse of Kerala

Considered to be the lifeline of Kerala, the Periyar River is the longest river in the state of Kerala, India that covers a length of about 244 km. It serves as a source of drinking water for the major towns in the state apart from a few other perennial rivers. Sivagiri hills of the Western Ghats serves as the origin for the river, which reaches the Periyar lake after flowing through the National park of Periyar, which finally reaches into the Arabian Sea after flowing through Vembanad lake. Some of the river’s major tributaries include Muthirapuzha, Mullayar, Cheruthoni, Perinjankutti and Edamala rivers. As a perennial river, it is considered to be a channel that has a continuous flow in parts of its stream bed all the year round.


History of Periyar River

The Kingdom of Pandya, who ruled Madurai until 12th century, had the Periyar valley under their reign. They’d constructed the Mullaperiyar dam in the year of 1895, which was built across the west-flowing Periyar river, that later stops the river to form a reservoir. It also resulted in the creation of an artificial lake, which enhanced the charm of the valley.

The Travancore kings, used the reserve as a source for hunting grounds, during the 18th and 19th centuries. Inside the reserve was a palace – the Edapalayam Lake Palace, which was meant for the guests of the royal family. In 1899, the area was declared as a forest reserve called the Periyar Lake Reserve. This step was taken with the main intention of protecting the hunting area of the kings from the encroachment of tea plantations.

What it is to Kerala-

It is considered to be one of the most celebrated rivers in Kerala, as it serves as the lifeline and pulse of all the activity in the native settlement. Apart from serving as a source of water for all of Kerala, it is also a source for supplying electricity, throughout the state. To top it all, it is considered to have a rich reserve of fisheries that gets harvested across its course and the river also serves as a secret to prosperity in regards to the agriculture in the state, as many irrigation projects are supported by the waterbody. The Cardamom hills plateau of Kerala also gets benefited from the river as the latter provides nourishment for the plateau.

Periyar river- Today

The river is considered to be a perfect tourism spot for people from all over the world, where they can indulge in numerous activities like bamboo rafting, boat rides and birdwatching. The people of Kerala understand the importance of the river and how measures must be taken to conserve the waterbody. For instance, steps were taken recently, to conduct clean-up drives for the river apart from other waterbodies, as the people realized how much these waterbodies were polluted and that it was in their hands to conserve them. Hence, it comes as no surprise that Periyar river is considered to hold a Divine status in God’s own country.







The Scenic Lake of Pichola

Located in the heart of Udaipur, Rajasthan; lake Pichola is considered to be one the oldest and largest lakes of the city. It is also one of the most beautiful and picturesque lakes of Rajasthan. The lake is extended to a length of 3 miles and a breadth of 2 miles with a depth of 30 feet. As an artificial freshwater, the depth normally gets increased during heavy rainfall which also acts as the main source of water for the lake.

Dating back to the 15th century, the lake was built during the reign of Maharana Lakshaja by Banjara tribe. It was later extended by Maharaja Uday Singh, who built a stone masonry dam, which is called ‘Big Pole’. For decades, the lake and surroundings have been developed and it has become a major tourist attraction.

Picholi was the name of a village that lent its name to the lake. The islands of Jagniwas and Jagmandir are housed in this lake. Along the eastern banks of the lake lies the City Palace. A boat ride in the lake around sunset offers a breathtaking view of the Lake and City Palace.


The lake came to be known overseas, after the English Journalist and writer, Rudyard Kipling had mentioned the lake in a phrase from the book, “Letters of Marque”- “If the Venetian owned the Pichola Lake, he might say with justice, `see it and die’”.

Considered to be a manmade marvel, Pichola has historically been recognised as an example of an engineering phenomenon, as it was successfully constructed in the midst of a desert. The lake is enveloped by a number of palaces, temples and elevated hills on all sides.

As much as the lake provides a bubble of tranquillity, it has faced a lot of problems as well. During the period of 1970’s, the lake, which once had an abundance fishes of different varieties, was then empty with no water beings. It was later found out that, the water quality index of Pichola was poor. Over 1000 toilets were directly connected to the lake and the sewage would flow directly from these into the lake. A lot of solid and liquid waste gets deposited into the lake, due to the growing population and lack of taking effective measures. To top it all, the erosion of soil led to the deposit of sediments inside the lake, depleting its water quality.

Several conservation projects were implemented that involved installing a 24-kilometre-long sewerage line around the area of the lake. The problem wasn’t taken care of completely, and even today the waterbody faces the problems of sewage disposal. This causes a drawback to the tourism in regards to the lake.

Taking up of conservation projects and adopting a strict system in regards to sewage disposal are means to ending this problem. It is a continuous process. With the proper effort and care, the lake will be restored to its glory of serving as a mesmerizing beauty.  






E.F.I’s efforts towards a green environment!

It’s not about planting that sapling, its about caring-nurturing and see it grow. E.F.I’s ForesTree efforts aims to increase the green cover of our fragile environment!

The Thamarai Kulam Plantation in Ennore

On 8th January, over 1120 saplings (1060 Clerodendrum and 60 Oleander) were planted along the bunds (530 ft.) of the Thamarai Kulam in Ennore! The Thamarai Kulam was taken up for restoration in 2019 with support from the Greater Chennai Corporation and the Gulf Oil India Ltd.

To know more about this restoration, watch this video!

The Sholinganallur Lake Plantation

On 25th January, over 300 saplings (150 Ixora and 150 Oleander) were planted along the bunds (880 ft.) of the Thamaraikeni Lake in Sholinganallur! The Thamaraikeni Lake was taken up for restoration in 2018 with support from the Govt. of TN, Hinduja Foundation-Jal Jeevan Program, IndusInd Bank and E.F.I.

Check out this video to know more!

We thank all the volunteers and local residents who joined us in our efforts to conserve and protect the Lakes of India

Volunteer for India and her Environment with E.F.I, Jai Hind


The Stories of Bhimtal Lake

Located at a height of 1200 metres above the sea level and situated about 22 kilometers from Nainital, Uttarakhand; the lake is seated in the small town of Bhimtal, after which the lake was also named. It is considered to be the largest lake around the areas of Nainital.

Named after Bhim, one of the five Pandavas, the lake was also mentioned in the Hindu epic, the Mahabharatha. Having an intimate association with History and Mythology, the lake serves as the most prominent tourist spot of the town, which makes the latter, a famous place to visit. It is believed that the Pandavas had visited the lake during their exile period in the forest. Local legend explains that, their wife Draupadi was thirsty, which made Bhim struck the ground with such a force, using his mace, that created a crater, which was later miraculously filled with water, and this phenomenon is the reason why the lake is named after him. The lake has been known for much longer period in comparison to, Nainital, which was a secret holy lake known only to the people in the hill areas until 1841, when the British discovered it. 


The winter months are usually the period, when the lake gets visited by migratory birds. One of the most exceptional activities in regards to tourism, includes boat cruises and birdwatching. The lake provides drinking water supply and supports aquafarming with a variety of fish species like common snow trout, catla, rohu and silver carp.

As mentioned, it is considered to be one of the best places for tourism, where the lake, accompanied by the temple constructed next to it, and a picturesque island located at the middle of the lake serves as the perfect spot of hangout. A 14.8 meters dam was also built on the lake during the British rule, the Victoria Dam, which created a water storage facility. The dam, along with an aquarium in the lake’s island is spread over an area of 47 acres. It is indeed a scenic place for nature lovers and tourists to visit and enjoy its tranquility and serenity.






uttarakhandtourism- bhimtal lake



The Brackish Side of Pulicat

Being one of the largest Saltwater lake in India, the Pulicat lake is found to have a length of about 50 kilometres and a width of around 5 to 16 kilometres. A major part of the lake lies on the south-eastern portion of Andhra Pradesh and the rest covers a portion of Tamil Nadu in an adjacent manner. The Sriharikota island separates the lake from the Bay of Bengal; which has made the southern end of the island and the northern part of Pulicat as the only entrance of the lake into the sea. The lake’s Bird Sanctuary is encompassed by this waterbody. As described previously, a major part of Pulicat lake comes under the Nellore District of Andhra Pradesh.

History of Pulicat Lake

The history of Pulicat lake goes a long way back and also has an immense heritage value right from the 6th century and the importance for waterbirds is widely recognized. It has been a nesting place for migratory birds from time immemorial.

Around the period of 16th Century, the lake was colonized by the Portuguese followed by the Dutch who’d drifted to the lake as their ships got stuck on the shores of Karimanal village on the opposite side of the lake’s mouth during their occupation. Pulicat was also known by the name of Palaverkadu.

The traditional festivals of Pulicat Lake-

The lake is known to be a venue of numerous festivals that encompasses the traditional, and the cultural heritage part of Pulicat. The Flamingo Festival is conducted annually by the lake, and in the village of Nellapattu in the Sullurpet Mandal of Nellore District, where it serves as a visual treat, especially for the avid birdwatchers. The festival takes place for 3 days, where they celebrate the migratory birds, which includes the flamingos, that come to the lake for their nesting period and return to their native lands along with their babies. This entire ordeal happens between October and March every year. A number of Exhibition stalls and Cultural Programs would be conducted where varied street artists would come and perform by dressing up in costumes of mythological characters. This festival is also conducted to encourage Tourism in the areas of Pulicat and Nellapattu.


As mentioned previously, the lake is a nesting home for various flora and fauna, especially migratory birds which includes the Flamingos, the White Ibis, Grey Pelicans, Spoon Bills, and Spot Billed Ducks among others. It is also known to support 160 species of fish, 25 species of polychaetes, 12 species of penaeid prawns, 29 species of crabs and 19 species of molluscs. The lagoon is a delicate system, that requires constant inflow of seawater and if there is a constant increase in the sand deposition, the inflow of water gets affected in an adverse manner, which also leads to the depletion of fish stock. Despite its ecological, economic, social and cultural importance, the Pulicat Lake is under serious pressure. For the purpose of long-term conservation, it is essential to preserve this treasure.

The Hindu
The News Minute
Deccan Chronicle


Live History India


Times Travel

The New Indian Express  


Let’s get water-wise with sustainable architecture

Concrete is synonymous with development but is an environment killer…

After water , concrete is the most widely used substance on earth. Concrete slabs provide us a modern environment , protect us by from natural disasters by providing a roof over our heads and is the foundation for our infrastructure, transport and energy industries.

Concrete sucks up almost a 10th of the world’s industrial water use. India is the third largest consumer of construction materials after China and USA and is expected to emit between 4 to 7 billion tons of carbon dioxide by 2030, compared to 1.2 billion tons today. Our natural blue and green environment is increasingly becoming concrete grey and the dangers of concrete to name a few are choked landfills, urban flooding, overheated cities, toxic dust, freshwater consumption, destroyed beaches and lakes and ‘sand mafias’.

It is high time we look beyond the concrete age and look at sustainable architecture , circular construction based on building materials that increase recycling, reduce waste and save water.

Eco-friendly building projects that celebrate the spirit of water

Here is a look at 3 sustainable architecture projects designed with natural elements balancing concepts of water, environment and ecological conservation.

1. Sangath, Ahmedabad

The first Indian architect to ever win the International Pritzker Architecture prize was architect Balkrishna Doshi in 2018. Doshi has been a practitioner of architecture for over 70 years with his guru being Le Corbusier(master architect of Chandigarh). Doshi’s studio ‘Sangath’ in Ahmedabad is considered one of his masterpieces that takes advantage of natural energy flow, water bodies reducing greenhouse gases with special materials used to promote low cost building costing.

Sangath , Ahmedabad ( Pic courtesy : https://www.sangath.org/projects/)

2. Transformation of Delhi’s Nullahs (water streams)

In the 14th Century , the Tughlak dynasty in Delhi constructed drainage channels to divert monsoon rainwater called as ‘Nullahs’ . The Nullahs were a dense, connected system of water streams spanning 350 kilometers  with 20,000 branches, across 1750 acres of land and ultimately all tributaries connected to the Yamuna River.

Currently, the nullahs are unhygienic drains, in a shabby state – they smell, breed disease and pollute the Yamuna River.

The Morphogenesis project proposes that prior to sewage entering the nullahs , wastewater is treated and also any rainwater collected is filtered to form a sustainable network of nullahs. Apart from water treatment, an alternative transportation infrastructure can be built on either side of the nullahs by providing pedestrian and cycling routes connecting neighborhoods and business districts. 

This ambitious project aims to interlink many of the city’s famous archaeological sites that are situated along the nullah network and opening broad areas of tourism to sports, creating a cultural web within the Delhi metropolis.

Delhi Nullahs transformation project

3. Oceanix City Concept for Floating cities:

International Architecture firm BIG has designed a concept for a floating city that could help populations threatened by extreme weather events and rising sea levels.

Famous Danish architect Bjarke Ingels, known for visualizing and designing sustainable architecture concepts such as Oceanix city  presented to the United Nations an idea of ‘floating islands ’ . One floating island would have multiple homes built on it and groups of ‘floating islands ’ form villages. Villages are grouped to form an archipelago of a sustainable city.

Home to around 10,000 citizens these floating cities would be entirely self-reliant, subsiding off water collected, desalinized, and stored on-site, with food grown through hydroponics and vertical farming.  Oceanix City would produce zero waste and rely almost entirely on renewable energy.

Oceanix City Concept ( Pic credit : BIG Architecture firm)

What is LEED and why is it good for buildings to be LEED certified ?

LEED stands for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design and is a widely used and recognized green building rating system around the world for both commercial and residential buildings. When a building is LEED certified, what it means is that the building’s design and construction is very energy efficient , water usage, air quality and the choice of building materials are healthy, highly sustainable and are cost-saving green buildings.

LEED certification ensures that wastewater management is highly effective, and wastewater is re-used either by treatment , water harvesting or recycled.

Infosys, one of India’s largest software services provider has most of its 50 offices LEED certified and watch this video of their Chandigarh office setting an example of these green buildings being better for the environment , healthier for employees and saves money long term.

Something unique …look at nature’s architecture that stands for a thousand years ….

These amazing tree bridges are found in the Cherrapunji region of state of Meghalya. The living tree root bridges called ‘ jing kieng jri ‘ made by the local people are handmade by guiding the roots across a river or stream and allowed to grow and strengthen over a period. The roots are tied and twisted together and encouraged to combine with each other and form strong roots on either side of the riverbanks.

Though impractical for cities , it does show how mother nature can help people commute without worrying about environmental damages due to modern day construction.

In conclusion, sustainable architecture that incorporates rainwater collection, wastewater treatment , solar design, recycled and sustainable materials , and other ecological methods not only protects our environment but also provides a better quality of life .

Promoting ‘smart growth’ of our cities and towns by adopting sound design and construction principles increases housing opportunities for all and makes our environment more resilient, prosperous, healthier and water-wise. We should demand sustainable architecture, governments and architects should invest in it and housing regulations should mandate it for these solutions to be successful.


Pangong Tso – A lake that changes colour

Pangong lake is the world’s highest saltwater lake situated at an altitude of almost 4,350m in the union territory of Ladakh. The lake derives its name from the Tibetan word, “Pangong Tso”, which means “high grassland”. For the last decade, acquiring the western front of the lake has been a point of contention between India and China because 2/3rd of the lake about 20 km from the Line of Actual Control lies in Tibet.

Colorful water of the world's highest salt water lake the Pangong lake  (Ladakh India). [4608x2176] [OC] #Music #IndieArtis… | Salt water lake,  Salt and water, Water
Source- pinterest.com

The charm of Pangong lake is its ability to change colour. The shades range from light green to crystal blue and sometimes even golden,red and pink. Experts believe that change in sky colour and refraction at high altitudes causes this phenomenon.

Why Pangong Tso Lake Is Enchanting And Deserves A Visit | Travel.Earth
Source- travel.earth
Plan Your Trip To The Lake Of Changing Colours, Pangong Lake
Pink colour of the lake , Source-https://www.herzindagi.com/

Another intriguing quality of the lake is that it completely freezes during the winter months (November-March) despite having brackish character. The rocks situated in the bed of the lake discharge high amounts of salt which is not drained into any sea or ocean and so it remains enclosed within the water body , causing the water to be saline.

Frozen Lakes of India | India.com
Source- india.com

The lake does not support any vegetation or aquatic life except for some species of shrimps but it is an important breeding ground for migratory birds like- Brahmini ducks, black-necked cranes, and a plethora of seagulls. A species of herbivorous ground squirrel called Marmot and a type of wild ass locally known as Kiang are the commonly found creatures here.

Pangong Lake, Ladakh: Of Ever-Changing Colours and Sparkling Waters
Himalayan Marmot , Source-https://www.budgetwayfarers.com/

The snow-capped Himalayas, crystal clear water, and serene environment will make you fall in love with the Pangong lake. Camping by the clear waters and enjoying the breathtaking view will complete your experience.


Is Nuclear waste a major water polluter ?

Nuclear power has historically been one of the largest contributors of constant, carbon-free electricity globally . In 2019 about 10 % of global electricity was generated from nuclear energy.

Electricity generated from the world’s nuclear reactors increased for the seventh consecutive year in 2019, with electricity output reaching 2657 TWh (Trillion-watt hour) . India has 22 operating nuclear plants producing 6255 MWh (Million-watt hour) which is around a dismal 3% of its total energy mix as compared with France where 71% of its electricity generation comes from 56 nuclear plants and USA has 95 nuclear plants that contribute to around 20% of its energy needs.

How do nuclear plants work ? Like all other thermal power plants, nuclear reactors work by generating heat, which boils water to produce steam to drive turbo-generators. In a nuclear reactor, heat is the product of nuclear fission. Uranium and plutonium nuclei in the fuel are bombarded by neutrons and split usually into two smaller fragments, releasing energy in the form of heat. Uranium is mined and milled and the product – uranium oxide concentrate – is the raw material for making nuclear fuel.

Kazakhstan produces 43% of world’s uranium and caters to 80% of India’s uranium requirement annually.

And why is nuclear power considered reliable ? Power generated from nuclear plants have the highest capacity factor (at around 90%)  , meaning that the nuclear plant is running at maximum power for 90% of its time when compared to power plants running on other energy sources (see graph below) . Nuclear power plants in full-swing operation can produce energy non-stop for an entire year, which allows for a good return on investment because there is no delay in energy production unlike wind or solar plants whose outputs fluctuate with day to day climate variations.

Nuclear waste handling and impact on water pollution :

Little waste is generated : Nuclear fuel is very energy dense, so very little of it is required to produce immense amounts of electricity – especially when compared to other energy sources. As a result, a correspondingly small amount of waste is produced. Radioactive waste is typically classified as either low-level (LLW), intermediate-level (ILW), or high-level (HLW), dependent, primarily, on its level of radioactivity. Up to 90% of nuclear waste can be recycled and the rest can be disposed safely underground.

March 2011 Tsunami tragedy : Japan’s Fukushima Daiichi nuclear plant was flooded when the earthquake hit, and its control equipment triggered a meltdown. Radioactive water started piling up at the site and even today , after 9 years , millions of tons of radioactive water are in the tanks of the reactor.

What are the disposal options for this wastewater, and why is Japan considering the ocean?

Disposal options are very limited. Since dosage determines toxicity, any solution must dilute the radioactive water as much as possible. An expert panel assembled to find solutions focused on two potential options: vaporizing the water and dispersing it into the atmosphere  or dumping it in the ocean. Though the United Nations International Maritime Organization is governing this activity, local fishers and environmentalists are worried about the impact on marine life and neighbors South Korea have banned seafood imports from Japan.

Fukushima Nuclear Plant Japan was flooded by the 2011 Tsunami ( Picture credit : Alamy)

How is India handling nuclear waste ?

India is pursuing a closed fuel cycle, where there is very little quantity of radioactive waste generated. Moreover, technologies for separation, partitioning and burning of waste are in place ,which will further bring down the quantity of radioactive waste. Kudankulam plant in Tamilnadu is supported by Russian state atomic energy corporation Rosatom, and recycles its nuclear waste and the useful radioisotopes from the waste made use of in various other applications.

What’s new ?

  1. Russia has launched floating nuclear power plants that are modular and can provide reliable carbon-free power in remote , off-grid zones where there are power shortages and limited electrical grids.
  2. France is building a new aircraft carrier that will be nuclear-powered. Costing around $8.5 Billion , the carrier will have a deadweight of 75,000 tons and carry upto 30 Rafale fighter jets and showcases France’s climate strategy committed to lower emissions using nuclear energy when compared to diesel fuel.
  3. New methods such as shock electrodialysis that generates shockwaves in water and removes the contaminants from polluted water and separates out the radioactive isotopes are being used for routine clean-ups in nuclear reactors.

In conclusion , there exists a popular misconception that due to certain parts of nuclear waste remain radioactive for billions of years, the perceived health risks arising out of radiation is extremely harmful for generations. Many countries like Germany, Switzerland, Italy and Spain are phasing out nuclear plants due to public concerns around safety and focus on newer clean energy technologies.

Nuclear energy is a good alternate to fossil fuels(such as coal, crude oil , natural gas) as countries race towards less CO2 emissions, improved air quality and lesser marine pollution . The need for diversification of power projects has never been greater and nuclear energy can co-exist with other renewable sources of energy such as wind, solar, hydroelectric, biomass etc. with robust safety guidelines , waste & water management and real time monitoring in place.

Russia’s floating nuclear power plant ( Picture credit : https://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-49446235 )

Urban Expansion has led to loss of Lakes

Image via IANS

Migration of people is one of the main reasons for urbanisation, as people moved from rural areas to cities in search of jobs for better lifestyle and better living standards. Already half the global population live in cities, it is estimated that by 2050 two-thirds of the world’s people will live in Urban areas.

Image by Noorani via UNICEF/BANA2007-00136/Noorani

This only means there will be a fight for two of the most important  issues, Poverty and Environment deterioration. With the growing population, there is a scarcity of resources like water, quality air, energy, health and quality of life.  The water bodies, land, climate, vegetation, ground water level, water resources, soil are highly impacted. Considering the nature of urbanisation, it is important and critical to minimize the damages to the environment. Strong planning for cities will be essential in managing all these difficulties.

Water bodies are encroached for infrastructure developments like apartments, roads, parks, industries and factories. This development had led to a crunch of resources and basic amenities. Encroachment of lakes and drainage lines leads to floods when there is heavy rain. The effects of floods are loss of lives, damage of infrastructures including roads, canals, drainage lines and sewage systems.

Image by  wonderisland via The Lake Receives More Water From Sewage Than Natural Water Flow (hscprojects.com)

Waste water outlets are let into lakes, thus contaminating the lakes and giving no chance for aquatic animals to survive and not suitable for daily use or consumption. This also leads to contamination of groundwater level. Contaminated lakes  provide an environment for bacteria, parasites and pests to multiply drastically. Waterborne diseases like cholera, malaria, diarrhoea etc.. are caused because of consumption of contaminated water. 

Wetland loses its fertility. When the soil does not have the capacity to absorb water and it does not allow water to seep through and reach ground water aquifers. 

Lakes are one of the most valuable sources of freshwater in urban cities, they help the communities around to establish. To have a balance we must learn to coexist with nature, our actions must be measured considering both the environment and human habitat. These causes must be reversed and With better planning and sustainable ways to conserve water, sustainability can be maintained and reduces the impact on the environment.


Time to keep a check on the pollution

The waters of Narsampathi Lake have fallen prey to plastic pollution over the last couple of years. The lake lies within the vicinity of Nagaraja Puram, a village located within 20 km radius of the city. This not only makes the environment look so unsightly but it also destroys pond-life. The pollution has led to lesser fish in the lake and this leads up to the pond being an unsuitable habitat for birds. Polluted waters also prove unsuitable for other water based animals/reptiles.

A series of efforts were taken up by the government and local NGOs to clean up and revive the lake. But due to sheer negligence, dumping of waste persisted in this lake and ended up returning it to its unsightly state. A long term solution cannot be put in place when it comes to maintaining the lake if the people around the place fail to realise the importance of not polluting it. Preaching about the importance of preserving ecosystems or biodiversity loss doesn’t really help because these issues hardly matter to those who are concerned about making their ends meet. The environment is the last thing these people want to be concerned about.

Poverty and environmental degradation are closely related. So then is it impossible to fix this situation. No. People around the lake are dependent on this water body for many things. It is a source of water for their daily chores and provides for a fishing ground. Given that there are direct benefits that these draw from the lake highlighting them can make the message more powerful and heard. Emphasis has to be placed on the fact that a healthy system ensures their personal well being. Besides this incentives can be provided if needed.

For centuries man has considered himself different from nature. For as long as this dualism exists he will continue to miss out on probable solutions to solve environmental concerns. We need to identify a middle ground and rethink our place in nature. The water in a lake must remain clean if it is to provide a healthy environment for the organisms (animals and plants) living in it but also for human beings whose lives are largely supported by the ecosystem.

Written and Edited by: Trrishala Kumaraswamy

Volunteer for India and her Environment with E.F.I, Jai Hind


Picturesque Puzhal Lake

Seated in the Thiruvallur district of Tamil Nadu, this lake is situated in the area of Red Hills of Chennai. This is also the reason, why Puzhal Lake is also sometimes, referred to as the Red Hills Lake. This is one of the waterbodies that is fed by the Chembarambakkam Lake, apart from the Adyar River and the Porur lake. It has a capacity to hold water up to, a quantity of 3300 million cubic feet.


Constructed during the year of 1876, under the British rule, in the town of Puzhal, it originally served as a small tank, holding a capacity of 500 million cubic feet. Apart from this, two additional weirs (low dams) were built, which functioned as surplus ones, to release excess water from the lake. In the year of 1997, it’s size was increased to cater to the people of Chennai, for drinking water purposes, apart from storing water of the Krishna river, that flowed from Andhra Pradesh through Poondi reservoir and Sholavaram tank.


Jones Tower-

This tower was built in the year of 1881 and is the main attraction of the lake. It was initially built to measure the water levels and the deepness of the lake. The bund roads of the tower is used for several recreational activities like walking and jogging and a perfect spot for spending time with your family, serving as a picturesque view.

2015 Floods-

According to statistics, the lake had a storage capacity of 2,228 million cubic feet out of it’s original capacity of 3300 million cubic feet. Compared to the other reservoirs, Puzhal had only 67.5% of the total capacity. The Area of Puzhal recorded the highest rainfall that flowed overnight, in the history. The lake was recorded with a water inflow of 9,607 cubic feet and an outflow of 5,470 cubic feet, which was the highest inflow and outflow of reservoir’s history.


Puzhal Lake today-

Up until the end of 2019, the city was facing heavy water shortage, where the pipeline water supply was cut down by almost 40%. The Groundwater was fed by the lake apart from many other waterbodies. The heavy monsoon accompanied with the Nivar cyclone in December 2020, filled up the lakes with ample rain water. The Burevi cyclone that came after the former, was converted into a depression and caused a steady and a continuous rainfall in different parts of Chennai. The lake started filling up too fast, and almost more than 2,000 cubic feet of water was discharged from the river. As mentioned previously, it is still considered to be a perfect tourist spot for a number of recreational activities. if you’re looking for a place where you can spend a day of your Tamil Nadu holidays amidst nature then the Puzhal Lake is the best fit.






Kolleru Lake: A story of vanishing biodiversity

Flamingos spread across the lake engrossed in their process of searching for food. Boom! A gunshot hits one of the innocent birds and the rest fly hither thither to save their lives, unable to mourn the loss of their fellow being. The fishermen who shot the bullet sits back, without any guilt, happily with the sense of saving the fish from being taken away by the pink migratory birds. And thus, year by year, the population of flamingoes visiting the Kolleru lake has lowered rendering to the slow decay of diversity in the once healthy and diverse lake.


Kolleru lake, one of the largest freshwater lakes in India located in the state of Andhra Pradesh and forms the largest shallow freshwater lake in Asia, 15 kilometers away from the Eluru and 65km from Rajamahendravaram. Kolleru is located between Krishna and Godavari deltas. Once well-known for the large number of flamingoes that flourished here, the lake now surprises the visitors with fewer members of the fauna community.

Source: Britannica.com

Human greed has intervened in the natural bond that exists between the water bodies and the bird-life. Illegal encroachments have led to poor quality of water as the natural cleansing agents are washed away from the lake without any prohibition. The intrusion of seawater into the landmasses and its fallout in terms of adverse influence on the rainfall pattern in this region. Reduction in rainfall leads to failure of crops and thus an endless vicious cycle is created.

Source: tourtravelworld.com

In November 2002, this lake was declared a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention, which would help in the restoration of the lake. However, without individual efforts, it is very difficult to revive the beauty of this precious lake. With various concerned scientists and large-scale human efforts, steps towards reversing the damages to the lake are being carried out and it is possible that this campaign will help Kolleru regain the title of the largest pelicanry of the world.

Source: Commons.wikimedia.org


Women as Water Managers

There is enough fresh water on the planet for 7.7 billion people who inhabit it , but it is distributed unevenly and too much of it is wasted, polluted and unsustainably managed. Quarter of the world’s population face water shortage as domestic water consumption has grown over 600% over the last 50 years.

Countries and people are fighting on account of water and look at this database with a chronological listing of recorded water conflicts globally. In 2018 Cape Town, South Africa taps ran dry in an infamous event called ’Day Zero’ and India’s water hostilities every summer have unfortunately become common . Texas, the second largest state in USA will need to find an extra 10 trillion liters of water by 2070 ; the question is how ?

The gender gap and water :

In the Indian economy , women are grossly under-represented making up only 26% of the workforce and contributing only 17% of India’s gross domestic product, as compared to the global average of 37%. In the Global Gender Gap Index 2020 rankings, India slipped 4 places to 112th rank in gender empowerment.

Lack of access to safe drinking water supply, particularly impacts women as they are disproportionately burdened with the responsibilities related to water: collection, treatment, use for domestic chores, and caring for family members ill from waterborne diseases. In households that do not have access to drinking water on premises, 80% of the water is collected by women. This gender disparity has resulted in low contribution of women to India’s economy and on an average 66% of women’s work in India is unpaid.

With a view on farming , water management and involvement of women , the table below summarizes some of the top reasons preventing women participation in water user associations in Eastern India and why women are often ignored. Overall, only men participating and addressing the meetings, and men making all the decisions, were major obstacles to participation of women.

The relevant data are obtained from the states of Assam and Bihar through a focused survey administered to 109 women in 30 water institutions, and a larger farmer-institutional survey covering 510 households and 51 water institutions.

Success stories of water projects empowering women in rural India :

1. Safe Water Network project: Transforming women from water carriers to women entrepreneurs and managers

In Telangana state, private companies providing water to the community is expensive(15 Rupees for a 20-liter container ) and unaffordable for many . Safe water network helped setup several water stations that are locally managed ,operated and water priced affordably at approximately 4 rupees per 20 liters .

Just like Bank ATMs, these water stations(called iJal meaning ‘my water’ in Hindi) are installed at convenient locations and consumers can purchase and pay for water using a card (e-payments) anytime of the day. Water is locally sourced and treated for water contaminants and local women are trained to manage and operate the water stations.

These iJal stations owned and operated by women has been a huge success with almost 49 water stations providing 150,000 people access to clean water in Medak district of Telangana.

These women are proving to be competent water managers keen to learn both technical and managerial skills. Not only has this increased the self-confidence and independence of the women who run it , these projects are also financially viable and provide capacity and opportunity for women to become active leaders in the iJal value chain as entrepreneurs, operators, field executives, and mobilizers in the provision of safe water to local communities .

These water projects are now extended to the states of Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Women managing water stations

2. Tata-Cornell Institute AguaClara project : Clean drinking water systems

The vision of Mr Ratan Tata (former chairman of India’s Tata Group) , this initiative was made possible improving access to clean water and sanitation for villages in Jharkhand state of Eastern India.

Using low-cost and innovative technologies, the water treatment systems consist of a filtration unit for removing suspended matter and a chemical dosing unit for removing fecal contamination, making it safe for drinking and cooking. Solar-powered pumps move the water from lowland wells to an elevated tank in the village and then into homes, all without using electricity or fossil fuels. The outcomes reveal that women in households with piped water save an average of almost 1 hour per day on water collection, compared to households without them. Apart from being healthier, access to clean water in the home frees female family members to live more productive lives.

Tata Group enabling piped water projects in Jharkhand, India

3. Jal Jeevan mission :

A Government of India campaign run by the Ministry of Jal Shakti called  Jal Jeevan Mission, is envisioned to provide safe and adequate drinking water through individual household tap connections by 2024 to all households in rural India. All States and Union Territories to plan for their drinking water safety and Gram Panchayats / rural communities to plan, implement, manage, own, operate and maintain their own in-village water supply systems.

Some of the highlights are :

  • Solar Energy based stand-alone water supply systems for scattered/ isolated/ tribal/ hilly villages
  • Community Water Purification Plants in Groundwater Contaminated Areas
  • Cold deserts are primarily located in high altitudes in Himalayan region of Arunachal Pradesh, Ladakh, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, etc. with primary source of water is glacial melt, which is being impacted due to climate change. Promoting use of micro-irrigation can reduce the irrigation requirement to increase drinking water security.

Lessons learnt from these stories :

India needs to catch up with the rest of the world and ensure women are mandatorily represented, have enough opportunities to grow as female leaders and can actionize others in the community to contribute to their own health, livelihood and wellbeing in general .

  • To ensure greater equity in water access, women must be included in decision-making related to water and irrigation. The non-availability of water puts additional burden on women; hence water programs and projects must be planned with a view of women as significant water users.
  • Focused training for women through STEM(curriculum in Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics) education and vocational programs and initiatives on conservation and utilization of water.
  • We must aim for more women as water managers and encourage them to organize and participate in networking opportunities and community events that cater to women and girls, improve partnerships, providing them with the space and time to share tips and practices to improve water efficiency.

Watching Over The Pristine Waters Of Perur

The Perur Chinna Kulam tops the list of the several scenic and serene sights in the city of
Coimbatore. The rain fed pond is an ecological hotspot and hosts several species of birds and
insects. Common sightings at the pond include Common coots, Bar headed Geese, Drongos,
Brahminy Kites, Black Kites, Small Blue Kingfishers, Wagtails, Cormorants among many
others. The waters are coloured with hues of greens from the very many Babool trees (Vachellia
nilotica subsp. indica) that populate the waters along with water lilies (Nymphaea daubenyana).
The sight is enhanced by the Velliangiri hills in the distance. On the shores of the pond, here and
there grow thickets of reeds. They also form similar patches at the back of the pond. The pond
has been restored and maintained by Siruthuli, an NGO based in Coimbatore which works to
rejuvenate the water sources in the city of Coimbatore. Restoration activities over the past year
have really paid off. Improved capacity of the pond and strong bunds have made way for a
healthy and rich ecosystem around the area.

It is essential to protect these waters for they provide refuge for birds, amphibians and
insects across intensive agricultural landscapes. They also play a key role in maintaining the
water table and providing for irrigation and other water related needs of people who live around
this area. Improving our understanding and management of such ponds can help us provide
excellent wildlife havens, right in the middle of the landscapes where they are needed the most.

Photographs by : Vishal Shanmugasundaram
Written and Edited by: Trrishala Kumaraswamy

Volunteer for India and her Environment with E.F.I, Jai Hind


The Dark reality of Dal lake

Source – https://www.deccanherald.com/

Popularly known as ” Srinagar’s Jewel” or “Lake of flowers” the Dal lake of Jammu & Kashmir has been a tourist hotspot for several years. With snow-capped mountains and lush green coniferous trees in its backdrop, it truly creates a magical scenery. The lake is traversed through long wooden boats known as ‘Shikharas’ which pass through the floating flower and vegetable market.

Dal Lake

‘All that glitters is not gold’. Staying true to this saying the Dal lake might be scenically mesmerizing but the rise in pollution there is shocking. The lake used to cover an area of 75 square kilometers but in the last two decades shrunk to 12 square kilometers . Numbers from the Dal Lake pollution statistics look dangerous as the Lakes and Waterways Development Authority (LWDA) estimates that 80,00 tonnes of silt ,31,000 kg of nitrates and 4,000 kg of phosphates are dumped into the lake.

Untreated sewage is also a culprit in the overall degradation. The government has failed to upgrade the STP’s in that region which compels people to direct sewage into the water body. Due to an escalation in sewage discharge, wild weeds have started to grow in the lake contaminating it further and harming aquatic life. Since the lake is also one of the sources of potable water, locals fall prey to diseases like- typhoid, gastroenteritis, etc.

In the year 1997, 500 crore was directed towards the “Save Dal Project” by the state and union government but after 2-3 years, the project hardly made any progress. The government authorities took no accountability for the same. Similarly, several other projects were assigned to the state government like- developing STP’s, de-weeding the lake but all of them faced the same fate.

The Dal lake is choking in effluents and hazardous material. The government and citizens have to take some serious steps to revive it. Locals have to be educated, STP’s have to be developed and awareness has to be spread for protecting the pride of Kashmir.

“Be the change that you wish to see in the world” – Mahatma Gandhi.

Written by Vedha P


The Phenomenon called Chembarambakkam

Rains are something that are very welcoming to the city of Chennai. Everybody prays for that marvel to happen, from the millennials to baby boomers. Children wish for rains especially, so that the Government can declare a holiday while the rest would simply enjoy the smell of petrichor and spend their time having a hot cup of tea with fritters. But what happens if that marvel becomes excessive and something, we wish to happen a lot becomes something we wish to disappear? And what would happen if Mother nature fills up the rivers to an extent that it creates a catastrophic situation? Chembarambakkam lake is one such Phenomenon. Known once as, Puliyur Kottam (village), Chembarambakkam is one of the 24 kottams that was prevalent during the later part of Chola period in Thondai Mandalam with Kancheepuram, that served as it’s headquarters. Dating back to the 8th century, it was built under the construction of Narasimhavarman II of the Pallava dynasty

Situated about 25 kilometres from Chennai with a capacity of almost 4000 million cusecs, and serving as one of the four reservoirs of the city, it supplies water to both the Puzhal lake and the Adyar river. It is one of the thirst-quenching lakes for the people of  Chennai. Until 2015, there was no reason for anxiety or panic. But the heavy rains back then, as we all know, resulted in the release of the dam, and flooding of the entire city. Every part of Chennai, still feel that anxiety, every time November and December comes and the monsoon season happens. With the emergence of the Nivar cyclone, for the first time since 2015, the water levels have risen to almost 80%, and are continuing to rise, that the Public Works Department, are in talks about releasing the dam, to the other connecting rivers. Environmentalists suggest that one of the causes for that disaster would be the water capacity being reduced to 60% due to the excessive silt deposits apart from the river being dumped with garbage and rubble.

It is a perfect spot to visit during the periods of October to March, irrespective of the current situation. It is a period where the climate is at its best. It is an aesthetic sight to view while going on picnics and family gatherings. Serving as a home to several water beings and birds, it is an ideal place for Fishing and Birdwatching. Once considered as a lifeline for the South of Chennai, it has provided a source of irrigation for almost 168 villages, in the district. All things set aside, it is one of the most beautiful landmarks and a brilliant tourist attraction to visit. Some of the measures taken to protect it, especially during natural calamities like floods, include the proper management, distribution and re-allocation of water from the lake to its connecting water bodies. Maintaining a proper system of information to keep tabs of the weather fluctuation also helps to understand it’s pattern and be prepared accordingly. It is of utmost

importance to take such measures, as it is our responsibility to understand it’s significance and the impact it can create, if the proper action is not taken.







Caring about Water; Caring for Water

The influences of anthropogenic activities have seeped into almost every aspect of the environment. The expansion of humanity into the natural landscapes, largely in the form of urbanisation or agricultural developments has led to the fragmentation of water bodies and key habitats, as well as harm to valuable flora and fauna.

Furthermore, the discharge of industrial run off, and microplastic pollution have contaminated water bodies, severely disrupting aquatic ecosystems, and reducing the amount of freshwater available. As of June 2019, the Central Water Commission reported that 65% of India’s reservoirs were dry. About 40 percent of India’s population, including 21 cities will have no access to drinking water by 2030 according to a report by thinktank NITI Aayog. One of which is Chennai, home to over 10 million people.

Plastic Pollution. Source: Swachh India

It seems that human beings, always regarding themselves as the dominant species because of cleverness and inventiveness, are pushing the earth into a danger zone. Moreover, environmental degradation is rooted deeply in human culture. In a world forcefully maintaining materialistic standards, people are motivated to exploit natural resources to achieve economic wealth, perceived by many as the ultimate measure of success.

But there are some who do not see nature in such a way.

The Environmentalist Foundation of India is just one example of this, demonstrating that nature is not simply a resource to serve human needs, but it is a highly integrated system upon which all life forms depend on for survival. However, questions which comes to mind are how do some come to care about water? How do they come to care for water? How can others do the same?

To shed some light on this, I asked fellow interns at the Environmentalist Foundation of India two questions, one focusing on environmental attitudes, and the other on environmental behaviours.

  1. Why do you care about water? How did this caring come about?
  2. Why did you want to do something, such as volunteer with the E.F.I, to protect water and the natural world?

The quotations dotted throughout the remainder of this article are thanks to my fellow interns at the E.F.I. This article is tribute to their kindness in contributing answers and to their passion for conserving water bodies.

How did you come to care ABOUT water?

One of the clear reasons as to how a caring about water came about was undoubtedly education, either informal education based on an experience, or through formal education, such as through school classes. For example:

“I always loved studying water bodies and oceans around the world in my geography classes in school but one time, I watched a film on the Flint Michigan Water Crisis. I could not imagine more and more people living like that”.

For those unaware of the case of Flint Michigan, it is a story of environmental injustice and bad decision making. Flint’s water crisis began in 2014, when the city switched its drinking water supply in a cost-saving move. Switching from Detroit water to the Flint River, a river with highly corrosive water resulted in lead leaching into the drinking water of thousands of homes. Inadequate treatment and water testing resulting in a series of health issues for Flint residents, issues which were chronically ignored and discounted by officials.

Other reasons came not from specific case study examples, but from realisations of how human and nature interactions are inherently interrelated.

“I came to realise the importance of [water] when I saw what wasted water did to nature and what occurs when people interfere in natural processes for their own personal gain”.

“My care for water came when I realized its importance and the kind of role it plays in keeping the ecological balance of the nature”.

These two responses share a similar theme, that caring about water protects the ecosystem and humanity. If we negatively impact the ecosystem, for example, if we pollute the water bodies with plastic or leaked oil, we harm species that live there, and the species that drink the water, including ourselves.

Put simply, a caring about water came from a vital understanding, that

“Without water, living organisms cannot survive. So, it is necessary for us to conserve it”.

If we could all understand that conserving water was pivotal for being able to survive on this planet, then perhaps we would all care a little bit more about what we are putting into our water sources, rather than filling with rubbish, microplastics, untreated sewage, heavy metals and chemicals.

How did you come to care FOR water?

The second question focused on why other interns wanted to do something to protect water, considering how they came to care not just about water, but actually for water. Answers can be summarised by a desire to learn, and a desire to take community action, to do one’s part.

Concerning the former, two interns explained:

“I began work with EFI to understand the process and work involved so that I can also do the same for a lake just outside my campus (college) which has been foaming and is quite polluted”.

“Through my bachelor degree in pharmaceutical sciences, I came to know about the damage that the pharma industry yields and how it exacerbates the already stressed water systems. And I somehow felt responsible to do something about it”.

They went on to add “I recently learned that activism has many forms- writing scientific reports might just be mine. However, my aim wasn’t merely that. Through this volunteer work, I wanted to learn more about the water issues and how people resolve them. Doing research on local water bodies has put me in touch with my immediate surroundings, their stress factors and what I can do for them”.

In these cases, caring for water and volunteering for the EFI came with the opportunity to ‘do good’, but also to ‘learn to do good’, to learn how to take their experience to their own neighbourhoods and restore water bodies there, or into their own field, such as the pharmaceutical industry.

For the latter, answers focused on the desire to do one’s part to conserve water, and that together, as team, and if we all play our part, we stand a better chance at restoring and protecting an increased number of water bodies. For example:

“I joined hands with EFI to volunteer for our environment including the water bodies as it is a great platform to start with. I feel it is better to serve for the environment as a community or a team, which will have greater results”.

“My main motive to join EFI is to do anything I can from my end to protect and preserve the natural habitat, that also includes the water resources.

“I wanted to intern with EFI for not only doing my part in protecting water but also to raise awareness”.

G-shaped islands restoration on Arasankazhani Lake. Source: E.F.I.

What we can take away from this is the centrality of water to life, and the importance of each of us doing our best. Our best to limit pollution, our best to restore water bodies, and our best to raise awareness of the harm humanity has caused, and continues to cause, to water.

We all care about water. With water making up, on average 71% of Earth, and 60% of the human body, we would be foolish not to. But the distinction between caring about water and caring for water is an important one. If we thought we had a choice in this, then we would be wrong. When we pollute water sources, we are the ones who lack clean water. Caring for water is a must if we want to guarantee ourselves and future generations a healthy life. As a fellow intern put it:

“The first thing someone should understand is, he or she is themself a product of the nature. It’s not something “around” them, in fact they are a part of the nature, if they are harmful to the environment, they’re being harmful to themselves. Therefore, protecting and being responsible when it comes to our environment should become habitual”.

We all need to care a bit more for water. The term environmentality expresses this, a term which usually resides in academia, but which should be of a more common understanding, understood simply as an awareness of environmental issues and a sense of responsibility to the natural world

We only have one Earth as our home. Let’s care about it. Let’s care for it.


Lonar Lake of Maharashtra

Nestled inside the Deccan Plateau, Lonar lake is India’s best kept secret . Located in Buldhana district of the Vidarbha region of Maharashtra (around 500 Km from Mumbai), Lonar lake is one of its kind in the world .

Its origin can be traced back to around 52,000 years ago as a result of an asteroid collision with Earth creating a crater 1.8Km wide and 450 feet deep . This ‘impact’ crater fed by natural springs and monsoon precipitation formed a natural, saline lake called the Lonar lake. Almost circular in shape, this unique salt-water lake has no outflows to rivers and its high alkalinity (pH more than 10.5) makes the water un-usable for drinking, agriculture and industry.

Why is Lonar Lake so different ? It is a crater formation …

Lonar lake is different from other lakes in the world . It is the only crater lake on Earth formed out of basaltic bedrock (like craters found on Mars, Moon and other planets) that has both high alkalinity and salinity with rich microbial diversity.

The lake has two parts with different chemical composition. The inner part is alkaline (with pH 11) and the outer part is neutral (with pH 7) and each has distinct flora, fauna , and the most striking microorganisms among which is its blue green algae and bacteria. These microscopic forms have adapted to thrive in an extremely alkaline medium, where normally no life forms could hope to survive.

Around June 2020 , Lonar Lake turned pink for more than a month . Due to the presence of  salt loving bacterial population called ‘Haloarchaea’  that produces a pink pigment and elevated temperatures , the entire lake surface changed from blue color to pink.Once the monsoons arrived the lake water was diluted, and the lake returned to its normal blue-green color.

Lake story :

The locals in the area relate to several stories that make the Lonar lake so historical and mysterious . The ancient scriptures (Puranas) state that the demon Lonasura while hiding in the lake was killed by Daitya Sudan, an avatar of Vishnu. The blood scattered by the demon formed the water of the lake and his decomposed body contributed to the high salt content in the water . And that makes Lonar lake a one-of-its-kind salt-water lake where unique micro-organisms thrive.

Historical references :

Surrounding the Lonar wetlands today are numerous temple ruins that indicate high archaeological, cultural and spiritual significance to the crater lake. Inside the crater are 3 inscriptions referencing 27 temples, 3 monuments and 7 temple tanks.

Some of the temples that need a mention are the Shankar Ganesh temple that is partially submerged in the water and has a rectangular shaped Shiva idol. The Sita Nahani or the Dhara temple is a place where goddess Sita is believed to have bathed during the Ramayan exile .

Vishnu Temple – Lonar Lake

Lonar Lake is now added to the Ramsar convention list of wetlands:

The Ramsar treaty (first adopted in the Iranian city of Ramsar in 1971) is an intergovernmental treaty adopted by most of UN member countries ( including India) that strives to conserve wetlands and ensure the effective management and protect their diverse ecosystem .

Lonar lake and its surrounding wetlands were added to Ramsar protected wetland list in October 2020 and this will help preserve the water , the countless species of plants and animals whose survival depends on the lake’s environment . Lonar wetlands preserves the Indian sandalwood tree that is vulnerable to exploitation as well as animal species like the grey wolf, jungle cats, hyenas, cobras , water snakes and several beautiful migratory bird species.

If this lake is on your list of tourist places to visit, let’s remember the uniqueness of this crater lake as we admire its beauty, and do you think the lake would turn pink again next summer ? Time will tell…

Red-wattled lapwing bird at Lonar lake


Harike Wetland

Harike Wetland is the largest wetland in Punjab state, northern India. Situated on the confluence of the river Beas and Sutlej, the wetland encompasses an area of approximately 86km2. Declared a Ramsar site in 1990 and a Wild Life Sanctuary in 1999, Harike Wetland offers a sanctuary a vast array of species.

A bird watchers paradise, Harike Wetland attracts thousands of migratory birds, offering a refuge, during the winter months – some even as far off as Siberia and the Arctic. During peak migratory season, almost 45,000 ducks are regularly been recorded, and the water body is particularly famous for diving ducks, such as the crested pochard and tufted ducks, which congregate at the water’s edge. Moreover, the wetland is inhibited by a number of rare and vulnerable fauna, such as the testudines turtle and smooth-coated otter. The smooth-coated otter, characterised by a very smooth coat, is listed as vulnerable on the IUCN Red List.

Smooth-coated otter. Source: WWF India

Additionally, the Indus dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor), which was supposed to have become extinct in India after 1930, was spotted in the Beas River in Harike wetland area. Indus river dolphins are believed to have originated in the ancient Tethys Sea. When the sea dried up approximately 50 million years ago, the dolphins were forced to adapt to its only remaining habitat—rivers. These endangered fresh-water dolphins are one of the World’s rarest aquatic mammal living in fresh waters. In 2016, there were estimated to be between 18 and 35 Indus dolphins in the Beas River above Harike Barrage. During periods of low flow, they have been observed to move downstream into the head pond above the barrage which includes the Harike Wildlife Sanctuary.

Indus river dolphins. Source: WWF

However, on 27th March 2017, the flow of the Beas River was virtually stopped in order to allow maintenance works to the barrage and canal gates; this caused the river flow to drastically drop. As a result, many aquatic animals perished. An extensive search was made for the resident river dolphins, but only 4 were located. This sad situation demonstrates the vulnerability of river dolphins that today live only in heavily managed rivers and that the needs of wildlife must be considered in the management of rivers and barrages.

Additionally, a 2015 study highlighted that Harike wetland receives large quantities of untreated industrial effluents from surrounding cities. Along the banks of the river Sutlej stand any number of industrial factories including cement factories, paint manufacturers, pesticide factories, and tanneries, all with their own pollutants, and discharging polluted water in the river and ultimately into the Harike wetland. The studies analysis of the wetland’s water quality revealed high concentrations of lead, chromium, copper, zinc, cadmium, and other heavy metals; levels which, by international standards, make the water unfit for drinking and irrigation, but also harmful for the residing aquatic animals.

For example, a gharial was found dead in the Harike wetland, with the suspected cause of death being polluted water. Gharials are a critically endangered species which have seen an over 80% drop in their population in the last decade.

Gharial. Source: Wikipedia

Harike Wetlands offers a sanctuary for many rare and incredible species. All of whom remains in peril if we remain unable to alter our relationship with the natural world.


The fascinating story of Nainital lake

Nainital lake, a prominent tourist destination in the hill station of Nainital is spread over a perimeter of 2 miles and is situated at an altitude of 6,358 feet. The lake is further divided into two parts- Mallital( Northern half) and Tallital(Southern half). As of the 2011 survey, the total population of Nainital is about 41,000 with the lake being the principal source of water for many households.

Source – Vedha P

When Nainital was first discovered by P. Barron in 1839 he was enchanted by its scenic beauty and soon settled there. Shortly it became an important administrative point and summer capital of the colonial government. The British developed this region very strategically building drains, locally known as ‘Nalas’ which brought water in and out the lake. The major catchment area for the water body is ‘Sukhatal‘, another lake located some kilometers away.

While interviewing Mrs Latika, a citizen of Nainital and a women scientist working with DST(Department of science and technology) along with the foundation ‘Jagrati’ she disclosed to me the possible reasons for the degradation of the lake over the years

Source- Vedha P

Since the early 1900’s , Nainital has been attracting many tourists because of its climate and scenic beauty. As tourism has increased, construction has also escalated immensely causing blockage in the Nalas, contamination of potable lake water and overall degradation of the ecosystem. Many houses direct their sewage water into the canals which eventually drain into the lake. Idols of god are immersed into the water after the annual festival thus discharging large amounts of mercury . Water is being pumped out from Sukhatal lake(the catchment area) to ease construction there. These issues have consequently led to harsh effects on the biodiversity and the quality of water in the lake.

Image result for polluted nainital lake
Source – https://m.jagran.com/

To tackle these challenges, some measures have been taken. Recently a machine was supplied by the UNDP(United Nations Development Program) which can automatically check the BOD and COD of the water and experts have verified that it can help monitor the condition of the lake. Huge funds have also been coming in to supplement the revival process.

Source- Vedha P

Even though these steps have been taken, locals have to be educated and awareness has to be spread among tourists to keep the lake alive. Only through spreading awareness will the lake be 100% effluent free

– Written by Vedha P

Chennai’s Inland Waters, Worth a Countless Words

The capital city of Tamil Nadu has a rich and diverse natural waters architecture. The natural amenities, flora and fauna, bio-diversity and beauty gives a significant standing that anyone should never miss visiting them.

Lakes (in tamil “Aeri”) of Chennai act as a reservoir of rainfall. Inter-connection with other water bodies and the passage enables them in flowing seamlessly to join the sea.

Bigger lakes act as a source of water for the city. With increasing demand for water and environmental significance of lakes, conservation can gauge the gulf.

To witness and photograph the beauty queens flow onto the ocean, never miss visiting the following lake view points:

  1. Chembarambakkam Lake

Chembarabakkam Lake is a widespread aqua with a span of 15 square kilometres. The waters lie in the outskirts of Chennai, a part of the Kanchipuram district. The lake is an extensive reservoir, a rain fed water body. She facilitates outflows being the origination of Adyar river and furthermore a crucial waterbody drawn for supplying water to the city.The Lake is also known by localists as Puliyar Kottam since the Chola period with kottam being the one amonst the 24 kottams (villages).

2. Puzhal Lake

Puzhal Aeri located in the Red Hills area, has a full capacity of volume of 93 cubic metres. The reservoir was fabricated during the colonial period as Puzhal town in the late 19th century. It is a rainfed water body, with a geographic significance of origination of outflows and major water supplying bank for the city.

3. Porur Lake

The south-west frontiers of Chennai begin with the massive waterbody – the Porur Aeri. The vast space derived the name from its area, Porur. For its volume of 46 million cubic metres a capacity and the spread over 200 acres, the lake serves as 24 x 7 water drawn bank. The lake’s panorama, is the best to be viewed for a scenic view from the Chennai Expressway.

4. Sholavaram Lake

Chola – varam, a Chola dynasty’s blessing is a suburb lake spread over 24 kilometres. Cholavaram Aeri, is now recognized as Sholavaram lake which was an airstrip during the world war – II. Now, the aqua is connected with Puzhal Aeri via canal. The lake adjoints the T shaped air strip of the Air Force. The canal is a prime utility for people inhabiting Thiruvallur.

5. Naryanapuram Lake

Narayanapuram Aeri is one of the finest wetlands in the suburbs of Pallikarani (Chennai’s only marshland till date). Erstwhile, the lake served for irrigation purposes, for the local farmers at the locales of Pallikaranai, Thoraipakkam and Pallavakkam pathway. It has a strategic importance of acting as a reservoir of water holding and water absorption of the marshland originally spread over 64 acres.  

6. Velachery Lake

Velachery Aeri (chery meaning muds), is a marshy and lake(y) terrain of waters in the heart of the area. It is a primary source of water in the locale since the bank is subtly vast of approximately 24 lakh square feet. It has a spiritual and a watery history making it a prime distribution reservoir for the people who inherit the area.

7. Perumbakkam Lake

Perum-bakkam (vast – area) has a picturesque view any time at the day of the summer seasons. It havens for migratory birds such as storks, flamingos, pelicans are such a scintillating sight that can grab a day wide attention. It is a rich waterbody with a higher bank of fresh waters making it one of the few lakes with good quality of aqua. The marine biodiversity and the bird’s ecosystem, this the best place to watch the beauty, photograph the mesmerism which could be your therapy.

8. Pulicat Lake

The Pulicat Lake is a significant landmark with its origination of 60 kilometers away from Chennai. Hence, the vast aqua has a seasonal access of a period between October – March. Pulicat Aeri is a home to a rich bio-diversity with low inhabitations around the water scape. The sight of the lake at any point of the day, can drag the attention to witness school of fishes lingering, migratory birds sprawling, kingfishers hunting and course of an astounding sight. The history of lake roots to the 10th century of the Chola Dynasty.

The Bottom-line

The birds congregate and chirrup when any of their species is in danger.

The lakes breach and sea waves sprawl when the pressure on land rises.


When are going to flock together to bring a tsunami of change to conserve the aqua?

The 2015’s Chennai floods and 2019’s massive water crisis has taught the lesson; has it been learnt?

The graphic below shows the effect agglomerations in Chennai (Source – Scroll.in) :

Actor Lionardo Di Caprio’s post on Instagram: “Only rain can save Chennai from this situation.” A well completely empty, and a city without water. The southern Indian city of Chennai is in crisis, after the four main water reservoirs ran completely dry. The acute water shortage has forced the city to scramble for urgent solutions and residents have to stand in line for hours to get water from government tanks. As the water levels depleted, hotels and restaurants started to shut down temporarily, and the air con was turned off in the city’s metro. Officials in the city continue to try and find alternative sources of water – but the community continue to pray for rain.